On 15 May 2014, South Sudan's Ministry of Health declared a cholera outbreak in Juba, Central Equatoria State, after 18 suspected cholera cases and one death had been reported (Govt, 15 May 2014).
The National Cholera Task Force was mobilized, with UNICEF leading the WASH and Social Mobilization and Health Education working groups, while WHO is the lead for Case Management and Surveillance (UNICEF, 19 May 2014).
By 25 May, 586 cases including 22 deaths had been reported since the onset of the outbreak on 24 Apr (WHO, 25 May 2014).
By 11 Aug, the number of cases had increased to 5,697, including 123 deaths. Overall new cholera cases reduced from 825 in week 28 to 121 in week 32. (WHO, 15 Aug 2014)
By 12 Oct, a total of 6,141 cholera cases including 139 deaths had been reported. Overall, cholera was on the decline countrywide, with only two new cases reported in week 41. (WHO, 12 Oct 2014)
By the end of October, cholera had resurfaced in Eastern Equatoria's Lopa-Lafon County where new cases and deaths were reported, raising the cumulative number to 6,260 cases and 157 deaths (WHO, 31 Oct 2014).
No new cases were reported from week 47 onward. As of 14 Dec, the cumulative total stood at 6,421 cases including 167 deaths (CFR 2.60%) from five states and 16 counties. (Govt/WHO, 14 Dec 2014) According to WHO, the outbreak has subsided, but recurring outbreaks remain a concern and reflect the need for sustained prevention and control activities while addressing the underlying causes by ensuring consistent access to clean water. (WHO, 30 Nov 2014)
Period covered: January-December 2014
Overview -- DCM mission and core functions
The Disaster and Crisis Management (DCM) department’s mission is to ensure that a well functioning, relevant global disaster management system is in place to address the needs of communities who are vulnerable to or affected by disasters and crises. DCM is part of a global disaster management team guided by the following key strategic priorities:
Description of the disaster
• UNICEF continues to provide both financial and technical assistance to partners implementing nutrition programmes, with 38,416 children admitted for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) from January to March 2015, a record admission rate for that time period over the last 4 years. This is due to a number of factors which include the scale up of nutrition services and improved stock availability as well as improved monthly reporting of partners.
Beginning in 2011, WHO underwent a restructuring of its emergency work to align it with the ongoing reform of the global humanitarian system led by the Inter-agency Standing Committee (IASC). This report describes the emergency risk and crisis management work of the Organization in 2013 and 2014, in the wake of this restructuring, and provides examples of how its new policies and procedures guided the implementation of specific activities for risk management and emergency response.
South Sudan on 7 April 2015 joined the rest of the world to mark World Health Day under the theme: 'From farm to plate, make food safe'.
To celebrate the day and translate this year’s theme to the local context, WHO in collaboration with Ministry of Health (MOH) and partners conducted various activities. These included the launch of the African Region Health Report 2014; the donation of 10 ambulances, two vehicles, 288 bicycles and three motorcycles to the MOH; an exhibition on food safety and a public awareness campaign at selected markets in Juba.
• Following the release of 654 children formerly associated with the Cobra Faction in Lekuangole, part of the Greater Pibor Administrative Area, the total number of released children is now 1,314. Released boys, and now three girls, continue to receive interim care, psychosocial support and family tracing services. Community-based monitoring systems are in place to provide family tracing and post-reunification support for around 200 children who have now returned home; as well as to identify, and help prevent, possible future re-recruitment.
By Bernhard Helmberger, Austrian Red Cross and Marial Mayom, South Sudan Red Cross
Introduction and Overview
In August 2014 Internews launched Boda Boda Talk Talk (BBTT) in the Protection of Civilians (PoC) site known as PoC 3 in Juba. PoC 3 is the newest site and is adjacent to the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) UN House base that contains PoC 1 and PoC 2.
When Margaret Dudu, a 30-year old mother of two, visited her mother in Gumbo on the outskirts of Juba, she intended to stay for a few days then return home and resume her life.
In 2015, thanks to the funds acquired from ECHO and the Common Humanitarian Fund PAH has the chance to carry out immediate aid activities in communities affected by natural disasters, conflicts and sudden outbreaks of cholera.
In 2014 the Emergency Response Team (ERT) carried out a total of 10 interventions, two of which took place in regions affected by outbreaks of cholera epidemics – Ikwotos and Juba, and two in UN IDP camps – Bor and Bentiu.
2014 in review
Médecins Sans Frontières’ teams were quick to respond to people’s needs in South Sudan after the onset of fighting in Juba in December 2013. The organization immediately started dispatching medical supplies and personnel to launch emergency response activities in critically affected locations. From 13 regular projects, MSF’s activities soon expanded to more than 20 projects in 9 states, to provide free healthcare to the most vulnerable people affected by the conflict.
When violence erupted in South Sudan at the end of 2013, tens of thousands of people fleeing the conflict sought refuge in United Nations bases positioned around the country in the hope that peacekeepers stationed there would protect them. The bases were quickly overwhelmed, with families crammed together with little or no access to safe water or sanitation.
Then the rainy season approached, increasing the risk of water-borne diseases, in particular cholera, which is endemic to the country – with the potential for explosive outbreaks in the congested camps.
Fighting in Cueibet County, Lakes State resulted in 36 deaths and 55 casualties.
Humanitarian partners are supporting the management of the wounded.
A shortage of blood and blood products has been reported across the conflict-affected states. There is need to step up campaigns that encourage voluntary, non-remunerated blood donations by the public.
Special points of interest:
o WES and Lakes had the highest completeness and timeliness respectively this epi-week 49.
o Total consultations reached 68,966 with 26,696 under 5 years and mortality of 15 recorded across the 10 states with seven (7) cases in the < 5 years age group.
o Thirteen (13) suspected Measles cases occurred in <5 years this week most in Aweriel (6)_LKS.
o No case of suspected Meningitis occurred for <5 yrs this week.
In 2014, with the generous support of our donors, UNICEF and partners have reached 880,000 conflict-affected children with essential, life-saving services. In 2015, UNICEF will appeal for US$ 165.6 million to expand services for 1.7 million children, with a focus on reaching the hardest to reach children and improving the quality and sustainability of services while leveraging opportunities to improve the dire situation for children across the country.
Completenes for wekly reporting decreased from 92% to 89% while timelines decreased from 50% to 3% in wek 49 when compared to wek 48.
During wek 49, ARI surpased malaria as the main cause of morbidity among IDPs with Malakal PoC having the highest ARI incidence folowed by Bentiu, Kodok, Awerial and Ogod.
During wek 49, Malakal PoC had the highest incidence for ARI, malaria, AWD and ABD.
Five suspect measles cases were reported from Lankien during wek 49.
In this issue: The health response to the crises in South Sudan and Pakistan. WHO marks the one year anniversary of super-typhoon Haiyan