In 2013, an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) began in the Horn of Africa. Six cases have been confirmed, four from Somalia (Banadir and Bay region) and two from Kenya (Dadaab in north-‐eastern Kenya). The first case was confirmed in Somalia on 9 May 2013 and in Kenya on 22 May. This was the first outbreak in Somalia since 2007 and in Kenya since 2011. Outbreak campaigns have been launched in both countries. Immunization campaigns are planned and being conducted in neighboring Ethiopia and Yemen to boost population immunity levels and minimize the risk of spread of the outbreak. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 30 May 2013)
As of 1 Jul, 25 cases had been reported from Somalia (primarily from Banadir region) and six from Kenya (Dadaab in north-eastern Kenya) (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 1 Jul 2013). As of 14 Aug, Somalia had the worst outbreak in the world in a non-endemic country with 105 cases confirmed. About 10 cases of wild polio had been confirmed in Kenya. (OCHA, 15 Aug 2013) As of 14 Oct, six cases of polio had been confirmed in Ethiopia (IFRC, 25 Oct 2013). Three cases had been reported in South Sudan, but were retracted on 26 Oct due to laboratory error (IFRC, 29 Oct 2013).
As of the end of 2013, the polio outbreak in the Horn of Africa was on the decline and the total number of polio cases stood at 203 (183 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and six from Ethiopia). The most recent case in the region had onset of paralysis on 9 Oct (from Lower Shabelle, Somalia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 24 Dec 2013)
By 18 Jun 2014, the total number of cases in the region was 219 since the beginning of the outbreak in Apr 2013 (195 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and 10 from Ethiopia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 18 Jun 2014)
Two new cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in South Sudan in the week of 4 Nov. Both were from Rubkona district of Unity province. The most recent onset of paralysis was on the 12 Sep. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 4 Nov 2014)
By 18 Feb 2015, it had been six months since the most recent case of wild poliovirus on the African continent had onset of paralysis, in Somalia on 11 Aug 2014. Twelve months of absence of wild poliovirus, with certification-quality surveillance, will be necessary for the Horn of Africa outbreak to be declared as closed. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 18 Feb 2015)
27 February 2015
The fourth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) regarding the international spread of wild poliovirus in 2014 - 15 was convened via teleconference by the Director-General on 17 February 2015. The following IHR States Parties submitted an update on the implementation of the Temporary Recommendations since the Committee last met on 13 November 2014: Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Pakistan and the Syrian Arab Republic.
Afghanistan: Heavy snowfall has caused avalanches in northern, central and eastern Afghanistan; 280 people have died. Panshir province is most affected. Communication lines have been disrupted in places, power supplies to Kabul have been cut. Priority needs are for NFIs and emergency shelter; access to isolated areas is difficult.
Forced recruitment and other grave child violations continue. Last week, 89 children were forcibly recruited from Wau Shiluk, however, it is believed that the number may be much higher. Some witnesses have noted that at least some of these children are receiving military training. Reports of forced recruitment in other parts of the country were also received this week and UNICEF and partners are now working to verify the number of children who may have been forcibly recruited and to advocate for their release.
The total number of South Sudanese refugees who have entered Ethiopia since the outbreak of the conflict in mid-December 2013 is now over 196,144 individuals, including 193,425 individuals who entered through the Gambella Region and 2,719 who entered through the Assosa Region.
Partners condemned the abduction of 89 children who were taking their exams in Wau Shilluk, Upper Nile State.
Partners were responding to cholera in Eastern Equatoria. Since 19 February, there have been no new cholera cases reported.
Over 600 people were registered as newly arrived in Yida, Unity State coming from South Kordofan in Sudan - 11 per cent fewer than in the previous week. Of the new arrivals, 65 per cent were women and children.
24 February 2015 - Striving to reach zero polio infections, the South Sudanese Ministry of Health, UNICEF and other partners today launched a vaccination campaign in the Upper Nile State capital Malakal.
“This time we are going to target 3,500,000 children across the country to be vaccinated in two rounds,” said national Minister of Health Dr. Riek Gai Kok.
He added that the round beginning today would continue until 27 February, and another round of vaccinations would take place from 24 March to 27 March.
Snapshot 18-24 February 2015
Myanmar: 90,000 people are now reported to have been displaced by continuing violence between government troops and multiple armed groups in Kokang, Shan state. Aid organisations have been subject to attack – seven people were wounded in two separate incidents.
DRMFSS/ENCU called on nutrition partners to start new or expand existing emergency nutrition interventions based on the newly released nutrition hotspot woreda list.
23,646 people in drought-affected Legahida and Salahad woredas of Nogob zone (Somali region) await water trucking support.
The Somali region WaSH Cluster is completing a rapid assessment to verify the reported acute water shortages in Deka Siftu woreda of Liben zone.
● The national “Back to Learning” campaign was launched this week. 50 per cent of the children to be reached -some 200,000 children - are in the three conflict affected states of Jonglei, Unity, and Upper Nile.
● Needs assessments are being conducted in the counties surrounding the Bentiu PoC to determine needs and organize response.
● Bentiu PoC has seen a new influx of people during January 2015, with a trend of 525 individuals per day in January compared to 325 people arriving per day in December
Epidemic prone diseases remain to be serious public health threats to Mem- ber States in the African region. In response to these threats, Member States through the adoption and implementation of the Integrated Diseases Surveil- lance and Response Strategy and the International Health Regulations, con- tinue to strengthen their public health emergency response systems and struc- tures. In this issue, a summary of acute public health events that occurred dur- ing the course of 2014 is provided
In this issue:
JOINT PRESS RELEASE
NAIROBI, 19 February 2015: Somalia is marking six months since the last polio case was seen in the country following an outbreak that affected 199 people, mostly children.
About 3 million people need humanitarian and livelihood support, despite good October to December rains and reprogrammed humanitarian assistance.
Acute malnutrition has gone down by 13 per cent in the last six months. However, the situation remains dire.
Threat to Somali remittances could have serious ramifications.
# of people in humanitarian emergency and crisis : 7731,000
# of people in stress : 2.3m
- UNHCR Representative, senior Government officials visit Unity State: On a 14-16 February visit to Pariang County, the UNHCR Representative and the Commissioner for Refugee Affairs, as well as other senior Government officials, agreed to allow the expansion of Ajuong Thok refugee camp to accommodate up to 40,000 people. The two sides also identified Pamyr (8 km southeast of Yida) as the next potential refugee camp for the Yida caseload. Pamyr, which has yet to be built, would be allowed to accommodate up to 20,000 refugees.
About 2.5 million people are expected to be food insecure in the first quarter of 2015.
A total of 651 Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala- azar) cases and 13 deaths (CFR1.99) have been reported. The cumulative is 8,543 cases and 229 deaths (CFR 2.68%) since the onset of the crisis.
Health partners have conducted 240,222 medical interventions since the beginning of 2015.
Snapshot 11–17 February 2015
Myanmar: Fighting between the Myanmar army and the MNDAA, an insurgent group in the Kokang area of Shan state, displaced tens of thousands of people. Some fled into central Myanmar, while between 30,000 and 50,000 are thought to have crossed into Nansan, Yunnan province, China.
The total number of South Sudanese refugees who have entered Ethiopia since the outbreak of the conflict in mid-December 2013 is now over 195,547 individuals, comprising 192,828 individuals who entered through Gambella and 2,719 who entered through the Assosa region. Of the total figure, 57% are female and 67% are children.
On 12 February, the High Court in South Sudan set 3 March 2015 as date to hear a legal suit in which the opposition wishes the 30 June elections declared null and void. Last month, 18 opposition political parties filed a case against the country’s National Elections Commission (NEC) seeking nullification of the polls arguing that the country still lacks a permanent constitution and has not yet conducted its census as constitutionally-mandated. The mandate of the current Government comes to an end on 9 July this year.