In 2013, an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) began in the Horn of Africa. Six cases have been confirmed, four from Somalia (Banadir and Bay region) and two from Kenya (Dadaab in north-‐eastern Kenya). The first case was confirmed in Somalia on 9 May 2013 and in Kenya on 22 May. This was the first outbreak in Somalia since 2007 and in Kenya since 2011. Outbreak campaigns have been launched in both countries. Immunization campaigns are planned and being conducted in neighboring Ethiopia and Yemen to boost population immunity levels and minimize the risk of spread of the outbreak. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 30 May 2013)
As of 1 Jul, 25 cases had been reported from Somalia (primarily from Banadir region) and six from Kenya (Dadaab in north-eastern Kenya) (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 1 Jul 2013). As of 14 Aug, Somalia had the worst outbreak in the world in a non-endemic country with 105 cases confirmed. About 10 cases of wild polio had been confirmed in Kenya. (OCHA, 15 Aug 2013) As of 14 Oct, six cases of polio had been confirmed in Ethiopia (IFRC, 25 Oct 2013). Three cases had been reported in South Sudan, but were retracted on 26 Oct due to laboratory error (IFRC, 29 Oct 2013).
As of the end of 2013, the polio outbreak in the Horn of Africa was on the decline and the total number of polio cases stood at 203 (183 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and six from Ethiopia). The most recent case in the region had onset of paralysis on 9 Oct (from Lower Shabelle, Somalia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 24 Dec 2013)
By 18 Jun 2014, the total number of cases in the region was 219 since the beginning of the outbreak in Apr 2013 (195 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and 10 from Ethiopia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 18 Jun 2014)
Two new cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in South Sudan in the week of 4 Nov. Both were from Rubkona district of Unity province. The most recent onset of paralysis was on the 12 Sep. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 4 Nov 2014)
By 18 Feb 2015, it had been six months since the most recent case of wild poliovirus on the African continent had onset of paralysis, in Somalia on 11 Aug 2014. Twelve months of absence of wild poliovirus, with certification-quality surveillance, will be necessary for the Horn of Africa outbreak to be declared as closed. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 18 Feb 2015)
· The situation in South Sudan has drastically deteriorated in the past two weeks, with heavy fighting on-going across Unity and Upper Nile states. 100,000 people have been displaced and 650,000 have been cut off from aid as humanitarian organizations have been forced to withdraw from affected areas.
HIGHLIGHTS IN SOUTH SUDAN
In a statement issued on 20 May 2015, the United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon strongly condemned the escalation of hostilities in the past ten days between the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) and the SPLA in Opposition and their allied forces in Unity and Upper Nile States.
May 22, 2015 / 64(19);527-531
José E. Hagan, MD1,2; Steven G.F. Wassilak, MD2; Allen S. Craig, MD2; Rudolf H. Tangermann, MD3; Ousmane M. Diop, PhD3; Cara C. Burns, PhD4; Arshad Quddus, MD3 (Author affiliations at end of text)
· The first 32 refugees, fleeing war-torn Yemen, arrive on Somalia’s northern coastline, reversing a decades-old trend which saw Somalis seeking safety in Yemen.
· UNICEF provides multi-sectoral response to population displacement caused by fighting in Guri Ceel and Galgala; the response includes provision of nutritional supplies, educational supplies for the out-of-school children, WASH emergency supplies and Family Relief Kits.
ETHIOPIA: On 8 May the Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs (ARRA) and UNHCR launched the relocation of South Sudanese refugees from flood-prone Leitchuor and Nip Nip camps to the new Jewi camp, some 18 km from Gambella. The first convoy had 1,376 refugees and the second (9 May had 1,279 refugees. UNHCR and ARRA welcomed the refugees and assured them that they would have protection and better humanitarian services in the new camp. The relocations will continue on a daily basis and as of 14 May 13,388 refugees have been relocated.
Only 1% of 2015 Health HRP funded
Polio eradication success as Somalia has passed 8 months without polio but risks remain
1.1 million IDPs in need of protection, health services and durable solutions
Measles remains a public health concern with 10,279 suspected cases in 2014. In 2015, suspected cases remain high
By the end of 2014, significant progress had been made towards each of the Endgame Plan’s four objectives; the world has never been in a better position to eradicate polio.
As the GPEI enters 2015, efforts are being intensified to build on this progress and stop polio once and for all.
Capitalizing on progress in Nigeria, against outbreaks in central Africa and the Horn of Africa, and against two out of three strains of wild poliovirus
By CHRISTABEL LIGAMI
The IPV dose will be co-administered with an OPV dose and the other infant vaccines.
The disease has been largely eradicated but there are constant outbreaks in Somalia, Kenya, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria.
In May 2014, the WHO declared an international public health emergency, citing outbreaks in at least 10 countries.
In Syria, Somalia and Iraq, violence has complicated efforts to contain new cases.
“Since the beginning of May, military activities south of Bentiu (Unity State) have forced up to 100,000 people from their homes. This comes at the peak of the traditional planting season, when people need to be able to move freely and safely to be able to tend to their crops.” (Statement by Mr. Toby Lanzer, Humanitarian Coordinator in South Sudan, 8 May 2015, Juba)
• The security situation continues to deteriorate in Unity and Upper Nile States, with humanitarian actors forced to reduce their field presence in several areas. UNICEF has scaled up health, WASH, child protection and gender-based violence prevention services in response to influxes into Bentiu and Malakal PoCs.
The Executive Board at its 136th session noted an earlier version of this report and expressed support for the proposals contained in the draft decision in that report concerning intensified eradication strategies and the removal of type 2 component of the oral poliovirus vaccine.
On 28 April, the United Nations Special Representative for South Sudan, Ms. Ellen Margrethe Løj, travelled to Pibor town (Jonglei State) and met some of the recently released child soldiers and urged the release of the remaining ones. The United Nations estimates that 13,000 children are associated with armed forces and groups in South Sudan, with credible evidence indicating that both of the warring parties have engaged in the recruitment of child soldiers since the eruption of the conflict in December 2013.
(covering the period from 11 February to 13 April 2015)
- The present report is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2187 (2014), by which the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) until 30 May 2015 and requested that I report on the implementation of the Mission’s mandate by no later than 30 April 2015. This report provides an update to my previous report (S/2015/118) dated 17 February 2015, and covers developments from 11 February to 13 April 2015.
The eradication of wildpolio virus remains one of the most pressing health challenges in Africa.
The continent witnessed the majority of global polio cases in 2013, and is home to one of the three last countries in the world where polio is still endemic, Nigeria. Polio is highly contagious and one of the most difficult diseases to eradicate. About 90 per cent of all children in any given community must receive multiple immunizations to wipe out the virus. No other global health effort in history has posed such a logistical challenge.
169 Polio surveillance: tracking progress towards eradication worldwide, 2013–2014
179 Performance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and incidence of poliomyelitis, 2015
• UNICEF continues to provide both financial and technical assistance to partners implementing nutrition programmes, with 38,416 children admitted for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) from January to March 2015, a record admission rate for that time period over the last 4 years. This is due to a number of factors which include the scale up of nutrition services and improved stock availability as well as improved monthly reporting of partners.
In this issue:
- WHO SS Celebrates International Women’s Day in Style
- WHO Trains Rapid Response Teams to Enhance Ebola Preparedness
- Rising to the Challenge: Going the extra mile to save lives
- WHO and Partners Rally to Fight Cerebro Spinal Meningitis in South Sudan
- Global Polio Eradication Initiative Alive and Active in South Sudan
- WHO News in Brief
According to the Humanitarian Requirement Document released in March, 2.9 million people in Ethiopia require emergency food assistance in 2015.
The food security situation has stabilized in most parts of the country in January 2015 with the completion of the Meher harvest season (November – January).
21 April 2015, Cairo, Egypt – WHO warns of an imminent collapse of health care services in Yemen. Health facilities are struggling to function as they face increasing shortages of life-saving medicines and vital health supplies, frequent disruptions in power supply and lack of fuel for generators. Lack of fuel has also disrupted functionality of ambulances and the delivery of health supplies across the country.
By Joe Dyke and Almigdad Mojalli
AMMAN/SANA'A, 16 April 2015 (IRIN) - A ban on shipping in Yemeni waters is worsening a severe fuel shortage that could have a devastating impact on public health.
Three weeks into a Saudi-led bombing campaign against Houthi rebels and with intense fighting continuing on the ground, the country is close to running out of fuel.