In 2013, an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) began in the Horn of Africa. Six cases have been confirmed, four from Somalia (Banadir and Bay region) and two from Kenya (Dadaab in north-‐eastern Kenya). The first case was confirmed in Somalia on 9 May 2013 and in Kenya on 22 May. This was the first outbreak in Somalia since 2007 and in Kenya since 2011. Outbreak campaigns have been launched in both countries. Immunization campaigns are planned and being conducted in neighboring Ethiopia and Yemen to boost population immunity levels and minimize the risk of spread of the outbreak. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 30 May 2013)
As of 1 Jul, 25 cases had been reported from Somalia (primarily from Banadir region) and six from Kenya (Dadaab in north-eastern Kenya) (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 1 Jul 2013). As of 14 Aug, Somalia had the worst outbreak in the world in a non-endemic country with 105 cases confirmed. About 10 cases of wild polio had been confirmed in Kenya. (OCHA, 15 Aug 2013) As of 14 Oct, six cases of polio had been confirmed in Ethiopia (IFRC, 25 Oct 2013). Three cases had been reported in South Sudan, but were retracted on 26 Oct due to laboratory error (IFRC, 29 Oct 2013).
As of the end of 2013, the polio outbreak in the Horn of Africa was on the decline and the total number of polio cases stood at 203 (183 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and six from Ethiopia). The most recent case in the region had onset of paralysis on 9 Oct (from Lower Shabelle, Somalia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 24 Dec 2013)
By 18 Jun 2014, the total number of cases in the region was 219 since the beginning of the outbreak in Apr 2013 (195 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and 10 from Ethiopia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 18 Jun 2014) By 8 Oct, the most recent case had onset of paralysis on 11 Aug and was from central Somalia. The total number of cases reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was six: one WPV1 in Ethiopia and five WPV1s in Somalia. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 8 Oct 2014)
Two new cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in South Sudan in the week of 4 Nov. Both were from Rubkona district of Unity province. The most recent onset of paralysis was on the 12 Sep. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 4 Nov 2014)
- Around 1.4 million people are displaced within South Sudan. Another 448,500 have fled to neighboring countries.
- Acute respiratory infection surpassed malaria as the main cause of illness among displaced people.
- The conflict has caused unprecedented displacement of millions of cattle
from conflict-affected areas into areas outside usual pastoral lands, altering disease patterns.
3.8 million People to be assisted by the end of the year
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 25 years on
150,000 school bags have been distributed in conflict affected districts of Amran as part of the national Back to School campaign
30,964 marginalized, disadvantaged and most vulnerable children have received birth certificates since September in Taiz Governorate.
Regional Strategic Overview
More than 3.4 milion children under-5 years were vacinated against polio during the National Immunisation Days (NID) in November, surpasing the 3.2 milion target. Meanwhile, the final round of NIDs for 2014 tok place from 2 to 5 December.
The first round of a polio immunisation campaign targeting children under-15 years in the thre conflict-afected states of Jonglei, Unity and Uper Nile began on 5 December.
• One year after the conflict began, children are still under daily threat in South Sudan. Over 1.9 million people, over half of whom are children, have fled their homes. The health system has been weakened, with outbreaks of polio, cholera and kala-azar reported. 400,000 children have been forced out of school and an increase in grave child rights violations were recorded over past years.
Snapshot 10–16 December
Iraq: 700,000 IDPs, mostly in Dahuk and Anbar governorates, are living in shelters that are not adapted for winter temperatures. 945,000 IDPs are in dire need of kerosene for heating.
Afghanistan: Kabul has been hit by at least 12 suicide attacks since early November, with more attacks also carried out elsewhere, fuelling concerns about the protection of civilians.
● Partners finalized the planning process for 2015. The Humanitarian Response Plan for 2015 seeks $1.8 billion to assist 4.1 million people.
● Fighting continued to be reported in Fangak, Jonglei State, displacing thousands of people to different locations.
● Tuberculosis, HIV and AIDS were the most common causes of death during the month of November in displacement and Protection of Civilian sites.
● Fourth round of nationwide polio immunization campaign reached 2,431,388 out of the targeted 3.3 million children.
Provide timely and quality life-saving assistance to people in humanitarian crisis and emergency.
Enhance the scale and quality of humanitarian protection services and improve the broader protective environment through preventative measures.
Strengthen the resilience of vulnerable households and communities through livelihood support, programmes for critical gaps in basic social services and social protection that complement disaster risk reduction, recovery and development interventions.
(Mogadishu, 10 December 2014) Speaking after the launch of the 2015 Global Humanitarian Response plans in Geneva on 8 December 2014, the Humanitarian Coordinator for Somalia, Mr. Philippe Lazzarini, revealed that humanitarian organizations in Somalia require US$ 863 million to meet the most urgent needs of 2.76 million Somalis in 2015. “The humanitarian situation in Somalia has significantly deteriorated this year, for the first time since the end of the 2011 famine.
Snapshot 3–9 December
Philippines: Category 5 Typhoon Hagupit, locally known as Ruby, made landfall on 6 December over the town of Dolores in Eastern Samar province (Eastern Philippines). At least 49 of 81 provinces are potentially at high risk. The typhoon is moving very slowly, potentially subjecting each community in the path of the typhoon to high winds and torrential rainfall for much longer. 1.1 million people are affected.
December 2014 – Despite lack of proper financial rewards, thousands of dedicated vaccinators, health educators and volunteers in southern Aden governorate devoted their time and energy to conduct a national immunization campaign.
In the recent measles, rubella and polio campaign, which took place from 9 to 20 November 2014, these selfless people maximized all their efforts to ensure the success of the campaign in which around half of Yemen’s population were vaccinated against measles and rubella.
For these people, saving lives is the “biggest gain”.
Fighting continued to be reported in Fangak, Jonglei State, displacing an unverified number of people to different locations.
Polio vaccination campaign for children under 15 years old continued in Jonglei, Lakes and Unity states
More than 5,000 children are accessing education in Bentiu PoC, Unity State.
In the north of Madagascar, supplementary immunization activities are planned for December in response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus. National Immunization Days are planned for January. The aim is to boost immunity across the country against all strains of poliovirus using trivalent oral polio vaccine.
For the first time ever, only 1 case of wild poliovirus has been reported in Africa in the last 4 months. The case had onset of paralysis on 11 August in Somalia.
After two years of incremental improvements, a mix of drought, insecurity, surging food prices, increasing malnutrition, access constraints and funding shortages have led to a serious deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Somalia.
The total number of South Sudanese refugees who have entered Ethiopia since the outbreak of the conflict in mid-December 2013 is now over 193,938 individuals, comprising 191,369 individuals who entered through Gambella and 2,569 who entered through the Assosa region.
The average arrival rate of South Sudanese refugees to the Gambella region has remained low as the rainy season comes to an end.
• Relative calm provided UNICEF and partners the opportunity to assess and begin an immediate response to the needs of IDPs in Bentiu town. Of 129 children screened for malnutrition, 2.3 per cent were suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and 10.1 per cent from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). Children identified with malnutrition were referred for treatment.
• UNICEF has had to discontinue primary health care services for approximately 1.5 million people in parts of Central South Zone (CSZ) when partnership agreements could not be renewed due to lack of funding (only 24 per cent of health funding for 2014 has been received). 300,000 children under-5 are currently without access to lifesaving primary health care services and free immunizations.
The Director of the Expanded Programme on Immunization, Anthony Laku says the polio injections will be introduced next year to reduce on possible side effects caused by the oral vaccines.
Meanwhile, the Central Equatoria State Ministry of Health has launched a Polio Immunization campaign.
Vaccinators will move from door to door to ensure every child under the age of five is vaccinated. The campaign ends on Friday.
Niger: 10,000 refugees arrived in Diffa region from Damasack, Nigeria. Most were fleeing forced recruitment by Boko Haram, and some unaccompanied children were reported. More than 105,000 people have arrived from Nigeria since May 2013, and the rate is increasing. The newly displaced are in a critical situation, and Diffa faces serious gaps in service provision.
Eight suspected Guinea Worm Disease cases were reported in Malakal PoC in the last two months and are being investigated.
A cumulative total of 274 Acute Flacid Paralysis (AFP) cases have ben reported since January 2014.
Visceral Leishmaniasis (kala-azar) cases and deaths rose to 6,854 and 190 (CFR 2.8%) respectively.