In 2013, an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) began in the Horn of Africa. Six cases have been confirmed, four from Somalia (Banadir and Bay region) and two from Kenya (Dadaab in north-‐eastern Kenya). The first case was confirmed in Somalia on 9 May 2013 and in Kenya on 22 May. This was the first outbreak in Somalia since 2007 and in Kenya since 2011. Outbreak campaigns have been launched in both countries. Immunization campaigns are planned and being conducted in neighboring Ethiopia and Yemen to boost population immunity levels and minimize the risk of spread of the outbreak. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 30 May 2013)
As of 1 Jul, 25 cases had been reported from Somalia (primarily from Banadir region) and six from Kenya (Dadaab in north-eastern Kenya) (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 1 Jul 2013). As of 14 Aug, Somalia had the worst outbreak in the world in a non-endemic country with 105 cases confirmed. About 10 cases of wild polio had been confirmed in Kenya. (OCHA, 15 Aug 2013) As of 14 Oct, six cases of polio had been confirmed in Ethiopia (IFRC, 25 Oct 2013). Three cases had been reported in South Sudan, but were retracted on 26 Oct due to laboratory error (IFRC, 29 Oct 2013).
As of the end of 2013, the polio outbreak in the Horn of Africa was on the decline and the total number of polio cases stood at 203 (183 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and six from Ethiopia). The most recent case in the region had onset of paralysis on 9 Oct (from Lower Shabelle, Somalia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 24 Dec 2013)
By 18 Jun 2014, the total number of cases in the region was 219 since the beginning of the outbreak in Apr 2013 (195 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and 10 from Ethiopia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 18 Jun 2014) By 8 Oct, the most recent case had onset of paralysis on 11 Aug and was from central Somalia. The total number of cases reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was six: one WPV1 in Ethiopia and five WPV1s in Somalia. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 8 Oct 2014)
Two new cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in South Sudan in the week of 4 Nov. Both were from Rubkona district of Unity province. The most recent onset of paralysis was on the 12 Sep. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 4 Nov 2014)
In response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) in South Sudan, over 19,000 children were vaccinated last week in Bentiu Poc, where the two cases were reported. Outbreak response plans are in place to hold three rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in high risk areas to stop transmission of the virus.
Poliovirus circulants dérivés d’une souche vaccinale confirmés et distincts au Soudan du Sud et à Madagascar
Bulletin d’information sur les flambées épidémiques
14 novembre 2014
Lors de deux incidents distincts et sans lien entre eux, des poliovirus circulants dérivés d’une souche vaccinale (PVDVc) ont été confirmés au Soudan du Sud et à Madagascar.
Soudan du Sud
An immunisation campaign targeting more than 3.2 million children in all 10 states has been successfully completed in seven states. Efforts are underway to immunise children in the three conflict-affected states of Jonglei, Unity and Upper Nile.
Clashes in Malakal, raise concerns as gunshot wounds and other weapon-related injuries are the leading cause of mortality, accounting for 23% of deaths in the Protection of Civilian (PoC) site.
On 13 November, the Director-General of WHO accepted the recommendation of an International Health Regulations (IHR) Emergency Committee of Experts on polio that the international spread of polio continues to constitute a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) under the IHR, and extended the existing Temporary Recommendations to prevent the international spread of polio for countries affected by the disease for another 3 months.
The deteriorating situation in Malakal Protection of Civilian (PoC) site is of great concern with the provision of humanitarian assistance significantly disrupted. Over the past weeks, insecurity has increased, with humanitarian staff threatened and assaulted when delivering services in the PoC, greatly affecting the provision of WASH, education and child protection services in the site.
In late October, U.N. Secretary-General (SYG) Ban Ki-moon called for international donors to increase humanitarian assistance in Somalia to counteract the deteriorating food security situation.
On October 22, U.N. Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator (ERC) Valerie Amos briefed the U.N. Security Council (UNSC) on the deteriorating humanitarian situation in Somalia.
The 2014 meher needs assessment is planned for 29 November. Results of the assessment, coupled with a five-year sector and weather trends analysis and preliminary seasonal forecast by NMA will be used to project humanitarian needs in 2015.
The first of two rounds of national polio immunization campaign planned in 2014 started on 13 November. The campaign targets more than 13 million children under-5.
On 9 November, the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) facilitated the recommitment to the implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement of 23 January.
Escalating inter-communal tensions between the youth in the Protection of Civilians (PoC) sites in Malakal, Upper Nile State, continued to disrupt humanitarian operations.
The third meeting of the Emergency Committee under the IHR (2005) regarding the international spread of wild poliovirus in 2014 was convened by the Director-General through electronic correspondence from 2 through 7 November 2014.1 The following IHR States Parties submitted an update on the implementation of the Temporary Recommendations since the Committee last met on 31 July 2014: Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Pakistan and the Syrian Arab Republic.
13 November 2014 - To prevent an outbreak of polio among children living in the protection site at the UNMISS base in the Unity State capital Bentiu, health partners today started a three-day vaccination campaign.
Led by the Wold Health Organization (WHO) and the UN children’s organization UNICEF, the partners are immunizing children below the age of 16 years
According to WHO Consultant Simon Asare said the campaign is targeting 30,000 children living at protection site.
Separate circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses confirmed in South Sudan and Madagascar
Disease outbreak news
14 November 2014
In separate and unrelated events, circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have been confirmed in South Sudan and Madagascar.
In Madagascar, a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) has been confirmed. The virus was isolated from one case of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with onset of paralysis on 29 September, and from three healthy contacts. An estimated more than 25% of children remain under-immunized against polio in the country. Madagascar was previously affected by a cVDPV2 outbreak in 2001/2002 (resulting in five cases) and in 2005 (resulting in three cases). Emergency outbreak response is being finalized, with campaigns to be held in December and January.
Two new cases of circulating vaccine derived polio virus (cVDPV) have been reported in South Sudan, constituting an outbreak. Immunization activities are planned in November and December in order to stop the spread of cVDPV.
Immunization campaigns in Iraq in September reached 88% of children under 5. Around 20 million children were vaccinated across the Middle East in October. These activities are helping to protect the gains made against the virus in the region, with no case reported for nearly 7 months.
WFP’s first humanitarian convoy from Sudan to South Sudan delivered 700 MT of food to meet the needs of 45,000 IDPs for one month.
• EU called for a political solution to the conflict in Darfur and support to the national dialogue during a visit to South Darfur.
• SMoH and WHO reported 81 cases of hemorrhagic fever in North Darfur since late August, of which 15 cases were confirmed as dengue fever, with three deaths.
To commemorate UN day and in service to the community, WHO joined other UN agencies to provide integrated health services to the community in Kapuri, Juba, Central Equatoria State. Although UN day fals on 24 October, WHO employes, alongside the rest of the UN family, contributed their time and expertise on Saturday 25 October to “serve the community we work in.”
This was in line with the local theme chosen by UN agencies working in South Sudan for this year’s UN Day: ‘UN! With the people, for the people.’
Insecurity in Bentiu, Rumbek and Malakal is affecting critical health service delivery and has prompted partners to temporarily halt rapid response missions to those areas.
Two vaccine derived polio virus (VDPV) cases have been confirmed in Bentiu Protection of Civilians (PoC) site.
New Cholera cases have been reported in Central and Eastern Equatoria State where 47 new cases and two deaths have been reported, bringing the cumulative since May to 6,297 cases and 160 deaths (CFR2.26%).
The security situation across country is deteriorating, seriously disrupting programme activities. Unity State was the most affected with severe clashes that resulted in humanitarian access to vulnerable populations in Rubkona and Bentiu being drastically reduced.
Snapshot 29 October – 4 November
Yemen: As a government was agreed by Houthi and other opposition parties, the Southern Movement announced a merger to represent all southerners in the campaign for independence. Houthi insurgents attacked the Sunni opposition Al Islah party headquarters in Ibb, while Al Qaeda killed 18 Yemeni troops during an attack in Hudaydah.
The campaign running from today (Tuesday) to Friday targets more than 300,000 children under the age of five.
The vaccine being administered is a trivalent, against three strains of the polio virus.
Launching the campaign, Central Equatoria State Health Minister, Emmanuel Ijja Baya said the vaccinators will move from house to house, and centres will also be set up in schools, primary health care centers and protection of civilian sites.