In 2013, an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) began in the Horn of Africa. Six cases have been confirmed, four from Somalia (Banadir and Bay region) and two from Kenya (Dadaab in north-‐eastern Kenya). The first case was confirmed in Somalia on 9 May 2013 and in Kenya on 22 May. This was the first outbreak in Somalia since 2007 and in Kenya since 2011. Outbreak campaigns have been launched in both countries. Immunization campaigns are planned and being conducted in neighboring Ethiopia and Yemen to boost population immunity levels and minimize the risk of spread of the outbreak. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 30 May 2013)
As of 1 Jul, 25 cases had been reported from Somalia (primarily from Banadir region) and six from Kenya (Dadaab in north-eastern Kenya) (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 1 Jul 2013). As of 14 Aug, Somalia had the worst outbreak in the world in a non-endemic country with 105 cases confirmed. About 10 cases of wild polio had been confirmed in Kenya. (OCHA, 15 Aug 2013) As of 14 Oct, six cases of polio had been confirmed in Ethiopia (IFRC, 25 Oct 2013). Three cases had been reported in South Sudan, but were retracted on 26 Oct due to laboratory error (IFRC, 29 Oct 2013).
As of the end of 2013, the polio outbreak in the Horn of Africa was on the decline and the total number of polio cases stood at 203 (183 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and six from Ethiopia). The most recent case in the region had onset of paralysis on 9 Oct (from Lower Shabelle, Somalia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 24 Dec 2013)
By 18 Jun 2014, the total number of cases in the region was 219 since the beginning of the outbreak in Apr 2013 (195 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and 10 from Ethiopia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 18 Jun 2014)
Two new cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in South Sudan in the week of 4 Nov. Both were from Rubkona district of Unity province. The most recent onset of paralysis was on the 12 Sep. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 4 Nov 2014)
By 18 Feb 2015, it had been six months since the most recent case of wild poliovirus on the African continent had onset of paralysis, in Somalia on 11 Aug 2014. Twelve months of absence of wild poliovirus, with certification-quality surveillance, will be necessary for the Horn of Africa outbreak to be declared as closed. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 18 Feb 2015)
A new cholera outbreak was reported in Ikotos Country, Eastern Equatoria State with 43 cases and three deaths (CFR 7%) being reported between 11 and 19 February. Health partners swiftly contained the outbreak.
Health partners conducted the first round of National Immunisation Days (NID) targeting 3.35 million children below 5 years.
A total of 105 deaths have been reported at internally displaced persons (IDP) camps since 1 January 2015 - less than a third of the 390 deaths reported at the same time in 2014.
• Following the release of 654 children formerly associated with the Cobra Faction in Lekuangole, part of the Greater Pibor Administrative Area, the total number of released children is now 1,314. Released boys, and now three girls, continue to receive interim care, psychosocial support and family tracing services. Community-based monitoring systems are in place to provide family tracing and post-reunification support for around 200 children who have now returned home; as well as to identify, and help prevent, possible future re-recruitment.
Snapshot 18-24 March 2015
Syria: The Government carried out over 10,000 airstrikes between October and March, dropping more than 5,300 barrel bombs and killing almost 2,200 civilians. A chlorine attack on 16 March in Idleb killed six people.
Snapshot 11–17 March 2015
Vanuatu: 24 people are confirmed dead so far after Tropical Cyclone Pam hit on 13 March. Shefa, Tafea, Malampa, and Penama are among the worst affected provinces. Access challenges are significant.
Cameroon: The number of people internally displaced in the north has almost doubled since 10 February, to 117,000. This brings the number of displaced in Cameroon to an estimated 412,700, including 66,000 fleeing Boko Haram violence in Nigeria and the rest from the Central African Republic.
This report is produced by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in collaboration with humanitarian partners. It covers the period from January to 31 December 2015. It was first issued on 19 November 2014 and updated on 5 March 2015.
CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN NEEDS
• Since its launch end March 2014, UNICEF has completed 40 Rapid Response Missions (RRMs), reaching a total of 705,000 people including 144,000 children under five. In 2015, the RRM remains a critical response model to provide humanitarian assistance in hard to reach areas. Since the start of the year, six RRM missions have been completed in northern Jonglei and northern Unity States, reaching over 102,000 people, including 17,000 children under five. Two missions are currently underway in Kuach and Nimni in Guit County, Unity State.
On 10 March, the Special Representative of the United Nations SecretaryGeneral (SRSG) and head of the United Nations Mission in South Sudan, Ms. Ellen Margrethe Loej, and the United States Chargé D’Affaires, Mr. Charles Twining, visited Malakal. “I expressed my grave concerns about the forcible recruitment of boys recently at the Wau Shilluk village near Malakal and elsewhere in Upper Nile State,” Ms. Loej said.
On 20 January the Federal Government of Somalia ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), a clear reflection of its commitment towards protecting and promoting the rights of its children and a major milestone following years of advocacy by UNICEF and other UN and international partners.
UNICEF continued to respond to the measles outbreak through support to delivery of routine immunization services.
Iraq: 26,000 people have fled fighting between Islamic State and Iraqi security forces in Tikrit for Samarra. Food, shelter, health and WASH needs are priorities. More than 100 families have arrived in Al Dour, located between Tikrit and Samarra, and thousands have fled to central and southern governorates.
South Sudan: Heavy fighting between government and opposition was reported in Upper Nile state, and government troops took control of Wadakona town. Many civilians are reported trapped. Peace talks have collapsed.
In Bentiu Protection of Civilians site,12, 018 children were screened for malnutrition, identifying a proxy global acute malnutrition rate of 12.5 per cent - an improvement since the previous screening in December (proxy GAM 18.8 per cent).
An initial rapid needs assessment is under way in Nimni, Unity State.
For the first time in nearly 18 months a humanitarian convoy has arrived in Maban, Upper Nile State, from Juba.
4.1 million People to be assisted by the end of 2015
On 05 March, the South Sudan President, Mr. Salva Kiir, and the leader of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-in-Opposition (SPLM-IO), Mr. Riek Machar, failed to meet the deadline set by regional mediators for the two sides to strike a final and comprehensive peace deal.
27 February 2015
The fourth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) regarding the international spread of wild poliovirus in 2014 - 15 was convened via teleconference by the Director-General on 17 February 2015. The following IHR States Parties submitted an update on the implementation of the Temporary Recommendations since the Committee last met on 13 November 2014: Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Pakistan and the Syrian Arab Republic.
Afghanistan: Heavy snowfall has caused avalanches in northern, central and eastern Afghanistan; 280 people have died. Panshir province is most affected. Communication lines have been disrupted in places, power supplies to Kabul have been cut. Priority needs are for NFIs and emergency shelter; access to isolated areas is difficult.
Forced recruitment and other grave child violations continue. Last week, 89 children were forcibly recruited from Wau Shiluk, however, it is believed that the number may be much higher. Some witnesses have noted that at least some of these children are receiving military training. Reports of forced recruitment in other parts of the country were also received this week and UNICEF and partners are now working to verify the number of children who may have been forcibly recruited and to advocate for their release.
The total number of South Sudanese refugees who have entered Ethiopia since the outbreak of the conflict in mid-December 2013 is now over 196,144 individuals, including 193,425 individuals who entered through the Gambella Region and 2,719 who entered through the Assosa Region.
Partners condemned the abduction of 89 children who were taking their exams in Wau Shilluk, Upper Nile State.
Partners were responding to cholera in Eastern Equatoria. Since 19 February, there have been no new cholera cases reported.
Over 600 people were registered as newly arrived in Yida, Unity State coming from South Kordofan in Sudan - 11 per cent fewer than in the previous week. Of the new arrivals, 65 per cent were women and children.
24 February 2015 - Striving to reach zero polio infections, the South Sudanese Ministry of Health, UNICEF and other partners today launched a vaccination campaign in the Upper Nile State capital Malakal.
“This time we are going to target 3,500,000 children across the country to be vaccinated in two rounds,” said national Minister of Health Dr. Riek Gai Kok.
He added that the round beginning today would continue until 27 February, and another round of vaccinations would take place from 24 March to 27 March.