In 2013, an outbreak of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) began in the Horn of Africa. Six cases have been confirmed, four from Somalia (Banadir and Bay region) and two from Kenya (Dadaab in north-‐eastern Kenya). The first case was confirmed in Somalia on 9 May 2013 and in Kenya on 22 May. This was the first outbreak in Somalia since 2007 and in Kenya since 2011. Outbreak campaigns have been launched in both countries. Immunization campaigns are planned and being conducted in neighboring Ethiopia and Yemen to boost population immunity levels and minimize the risk of spread of the outbreak. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 30 May 2013)
As of 1 Jul, 25 cases had been reported from Somalia (primarily from Banadir region) and six from Kenya (Dadaab in north-eastern Kenya) (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 1 Jul 2013). As of 14 Aug, Somalia had the worst outbreak in the world in a non-endemic country with 105 cases confirmed. About 10 cases of wild polio had been confirmed in Kenya. (OCHA, 15 Aug 2013) As of 14 Oct, six cases of polio had been confirmed in Ethiopia (IFRC, 25 Oct 2013). Three cases had been reported in South Sudan, but were retracted on 26 Oct due to laboratory error (IFRC, 29 Oct 2013).
As of the end of 2013, the polio outbreak in the Horn of Africa was on the decline and the total number of polio cases stood at 203 (183 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and six from Ethiopia). The most recent case in the region had onset of paralysis on 9 Oct (from Lower Shabelle, Somalia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 24 Dec 2013)
By 18 Jun 2014, the total number of cases in the region was 219 since the beginning of the outbreak in Apr 2013 (195 from Somalia, 14 from Kenya and 10 from Ethiopia). (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 18 Jun 2014)
Two new cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in South Sudan in the week of 4 Nov. Both were from Rubkona district of Unity province. The most recent onset of paralysis was on the 12 Sep. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 4 Nov 2014)
By 24 Dec, the most recent case of wild poliovirus type 1 had onset of paralysis on 11 Aug and was from central Somalia. The total number of cases reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was six: one in Ethiopia and five in Somalia. (Global Polio Eradication Initiative, 24 Dec 2014)
● Roads across the country continued to improve making it possible for aid agencies to reach more people in a costeffective way.
● A second round of polio vaccination campaign in Maban refugee camp was competed reaching 71,097 children under the age of 15.
● Four outpatient treatment centers were opened in Aweil County, in Northern Bahr el Ghazal State to improve coverage of nutrition services in hard-to-reach areas.
• An estimated 3,000 children associated with the Cobra Faction are being released in Greater Pibor following a peace agreement between the Government of South Sudan and the leader of the Faction. The first group of 249 children was released this week and phased releases of the other children will occur over the coming month. UNICEF and partners are supporting the children with immediate interim care – shelter, clothing, basic health care, education and psychosocial support as well family tracing and reunification.
UNICEF is requesting US$111,705,413 to meet the humanitarian needs of women and children in Somalia in 2015.
Snapshot 21-27 January
Nigeria: Boko Haram attacks continue, with Borno state capital Maiduguri and nearby military bases targeted on 25 January. Security forces pushed BH back from Maiduguri, but further attacks are expected. BH also raided villages in Michika local government area, Adamawa state. There are reports that BH has forbidden the use of vehicles in areas under its control.
As at 21st January 2015, Kakuma had received 44,953 asylum seekers from South Sudan. This brings the camp population to 179,714. As at 17th January, 178,977 refugees had been registered by UNHCR and DRA, with South Sudanese making up 49.5% of the registered population.
● Partners scaled up social mobilization campaigns in Akobo, Awerial, Maban and Raja-Juba to improve school enrollment.
● The post-harvest food security assessment (second harvest of the year 2014) in the Equatorial region was completed and results will be issued shortly.
● Plans are underway to respond to livestock disease outbreak in Turkei, Unity State where an estimated 35 per cent of cattle herds were affected by an unknown disease and about 30 per cent of the affected cattle have died between July and mid-December 2014.
A total of 139,276 South Sudanese refugees have been assisted in Uganda since the influx began in mid-December 2013, including 88,066 in Adjumani, 12,503 in Arua, 31,369 in Kiryandongo and 7,338 in Kampala.
There were 1,027 new arrivals during the reporting period.
The Government of Uganda mass polio vaccination campaign for under-fives began on 17th January across all settlements and refugee hosting areas.
Ministers of Health from around the world will convene next week at WHO’s Executive Board meeting, to set global public health policies. Among other topics, representatives are expected to review the current polio epidemiology and global preparedness plans for the phased removal of oral polio vaccines. A report has been prepared, to facilitate discussions, available here.
22 January 2015 - Thousands of children under the age of 15 years recently received polio vaccination at the UNMISS protection site in the Unity State capital Bentiu.
A total of 27,000 children were immunized during the three-day exercise which started on 12 January. This included 1000 children living in Bentiu and Rubkona towns, outside the UNMISS protection site, who were also immunized.
Okot Joseph Okwera, a consultant with UN Children’s organization UNICEF says the campaign was launched after polio cases were reported late last year.
Snapshot 14–20 January
Cameroon: 50,000 people are estimated displaced due to the recent increase in Boko Haram (BH) attacks in the northern regions. In the past week, an attack on a military base in Kolofata resulted in 143 BH killed, subsequently, BH kidnapped 80 people from one village – with three killed and 24 later released. The conflict has escalated regionally, with Chad pledging military support in Cameroon’s fight against Boko Haram.
Report by the Secretariat
South Sudan warring parties agree in Khartoum on a five point plan proposed by the Chinese Government to support the ongoing IGAD peace talks.
The outflow of South Sudanese to Uganda through the Nimule border (Eastern Equatoria State) continued on a small scale.
Returning refugees continue to be registered in Bor town; a total of 91 HHs registered by RRC who are reported to have come from Uganda and Kenya during the reporting period.
As at 15th January 2015, Kakuma had received 44,791 asylum seekers from South Sudan. This brings the camp population to 179,552. As at 11th January, 178,230 refugees had been registered by UNHCR and DRA, with South Sudanese making up 49.4% of the registered population.
● Assessment mission in Northern Jonglei reported an estimated 44,000 people in need, with flooding and livestock deaths negatively affecting food security.
● A humanitarian barge heading to Malakal/Melut was dispatched from Juba on 10 January.
• The social mobilization and mass screening exercise has been on-going for three weeks in Northern Bahr el Ghazal, a high burden state. A total of 22,022 children under five have been screened of which 8.1 per cent had moderate acute malnutrition and 3.7 per cent had severe acute malnutrition. These children were referred for treatment. The social mobilizers also noted that most households visited have already exhausted their food stocks quite early in the year.
- More than 6 months have passed since the most recent case of wild poliovirus in central Africa was detected in Cameroon on the 9 July 2014. This indicates that progress towards stopping the outbreak in this region is being made. However, outbreak response activities must continue and subnational surveillance systems strengthened to ensure the rapid detection of any residual transmission.
Key mission findings:
• The local authorities and community elders estimated that the total population in Afgooye district is 134,892 people (22,484 households) while 102,000 people (17,000 households) live in the town. UNDP (2005) estimated the population of Afgooye town at 21,602 people.
Nigeria: Violence has escalated significantly in the northeast. Boko Haram killed more than 2,100 people in the first 11 days of the year. Most were killed in an attack on the town of Baga and surrounding settlements in Borno state, on Lake Chad. Up to 20,000 people were displaced. Other attacks took place in Maiduguri, Damaturu, and Potiskum.