Horn of Africa Crisis: 2011-2012
The Horn of Africa crisis of 2011-2012 affected 13 million people. The main focus of the crisis was across southern Ethiopia, south-central Somalia and northern Kenya. Regional drought came on top of successive bad rains and rising inflation. It ramped up a chronic livelihoods crisis into a tipping point of potential disaster by putting extreme pressure on food prices, livestock survival, and water and food availability. Armed conflict across the region compounded chronic ecological and economic vulnerability, which escalated the crisis and limited people’s survival and recovery choices. (IASC Real-Time Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya - Synthesis Report)
Appeals & Funding
- Djibouti Appel global 2013
- Ethiopia Humanitarian Requirements 2013
- Kenya Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan 2013
- Somalia Consolidated Appeal 2013-15
This paper was produced for a meeting of the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 19-21 January 2017
SUMMARY – KEY MESSAGES
• The failure of the 2016 October-December rains across parts of the Horn of Africa has led to a devastating drought in Somalia, south-eastern Ethiopia, and northern and eastern Kenya. More than 15 million people in these three countries are facing food and water shortages, and famine is now a possibility in Somalia.
In many regions of central and northern Tanzania, lives and livelihoods suffer from periodic weather-related stress, particularly from below-normal rainfall. The resulting crop failures and loss of livestock increases economic hardship, forcing thousands of families to skip meals, sell assets, cut back on medical care, or stop attending school. While these strategies help populations live through difficult times, they dampen quality of life and limit opportunities for development.
Every day is a struggle to survive for Rahel, 34, and her family in Sebeya, a village in one of the worst drought-affected areas on the Ethiopian border with Eritrea. Her husband is a soldier and often away. She works as a farm labourer when she can find work to feed herself and her young daughters, Danait and Melat.
“This last year has been the worst ever. I have little or no money coming into the house,” said Rahel. “There has been no rain, no harvest. The ground has remained a desert, offering us nothing.”
Situation Analysis of Children – A call for action to realize the rights of all Somali children
MOGADISHU, Somalia, 1 August 2016 – UNICEF, together with the Federal Government of Somalia, donors and partners, today launched the Situation Analysis of Children in Somalia 2016.
A preliminary emergency appeal was launched on 19 October 2011 for 27,618,017 Swiss franc (plus an estimated 3,050,000 Swiss franc for emergency response units) to assist 60,000 beneficiaries for 12 months.
Background and Executive Summary
Here are ten facts that shed light on the hunger situation in Somalia. Please help the World Food Programme (WFP) raise awareness by sharing these important facts on Twitter.
1) Over two decades of conflict have left 1.1 million Somalis displaced in their own country, and almost a million as refugees in neighbouring countries. High food prices, combined with frequent droughts and floods have compounded poverty and continue to threaten livelihoods.
Kenya is a disaster-prone country in need of strengthened emergency preparedness and response capacities.
The number of food insecure people has increased from 1.3 million in the beginning of 2014, to now 1.5 million. This is due to the two successive poor rain seasons compounded by localised conflict and high food prices.
Insecurity and the associated disruption of markets and income earning opportunities are likely to further worsen the food security and nutrition situation.
Despite slightly better rainfall at the end of 2014, seven years of drought have put Djibouti’s population under severe stress. Child survival in Djibouti remains at risk due to food insecurity, inadequate care practices, constrained basic social services and a proliferation of communicable diseases including malaria and measles. In December 2013, 17.8 per cent of children under-five suffered from wasting and 5.7 per cent were severely acutely malnourished – largely exceeding WHO emergency thresholds of 15 and 2 per cent respectively.
The Joint Assessment Mission (JAM) was conducted over the period from February until June 2014 with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the situation, needs, risks, capacities and vulnerabilities of asylum seekers and refugees with regards to their food and nutrition security as well as livelihood opportunities, and providing recommendations for the next 6 to 12 months. This JAM report aims to provide information for programming through the design of a joint -programme cycle for UN agencies and their partners under the coordination of the Government of Zimbabwe.
- The present report is submitted pursuant to paragraph 15 of Security Council resolution 2158 (2014), in which the Council requested me to keep it informed of the implementation of the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) every 120 days. The report covers major developments that occurred from 1 May to 31 August 2014.
UN Secretary-General, WBG and IsDBG Presidents, and other Agency Heads Visit Region to Link Peace Efforts with Economic Progress
More than 1 million people in Somalia are facing acute food insecurity, and the situation in the country is beginning to resemble the period prior to the famine in 2011. At that time, the international community was unprepared for the scale of the crisis, and that mistake must not be repeated, warns the Danish Refugee Council.
A combination of instability, drought and increased food prices now poses a serious threat to IDPs and other vulnerable groups in Somalia with 1 million people are at risk.
Latest findings from a joint assessment by the Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit for Somalia (FSNAU), the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) and other partners indicate that an estimated 1 025 000 people across Somalia are experiencing acute food security Crisis and Emergency (IPC Phases 3 and 4) from August to December 2014. Over 2.1 million additional people are in acute food insecurity Stressed (IPC Phase 2) conditions.
A 20 percent increase since January 2014
2 September 2014, Nairobi/Washington - The gradual recovery and gains made since the end of the famine in 2012 are being lost as poor rains, conflict, trade disruptions and reduced humanitarian assistance led to a worsening of the food security situation across Somalia. Acute malnutrition increased in many parts of the country, particularly among children.
The situation is likely to continue deteriorating further until the start of the Deyr rains in October.
(Mogadishu, 2 September 2014): I am deeply concerned by the serious deterioration in the food security situation in Somalia. The new assessment findings by the Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit and the Famine Early Warning Systems Network reflect a significant decline, owing to a lethal mix of drought, surging food prices and conflict.
Mogadishu, 13 August 2014 - Good afternoon distinguished representatives of the Security Council. I am pleased to welcome you to Somalia and for this opportunity to brief you on the humanitarian situation in Somalia, on behalf of the members of the Somalia Humanitarian Country team, who are here today.
AMOUNT: EUR 94 000 000
0. MAJOR CHANGE SINCE THE PREVIOUS VERSION OF THE HIP
In Somalia, the humanitarian situation today shows many parallels to the period ahead of the devastating 2011 drought that triggered a declaration of famine, which caused the excess deaths of 258 000 people the majority of them being children under five.
In 2001-2012, Somalia was affected by famine. The complex humanitarian situation in Somalia triggered by the collapse of the Somali state in 1991 continues. Protracted conflict, coupled with cyclical drought, floods and disease outbreaks, continue to place half of the country`s 8 million people in need of humanitarian assistance or livelihoods support. Somalia remains a failed state, and public service infrastructure, including health and education is either weak or non-existent.