The Horn of Africa crisis of 2011-2012 affected 13 million people. The main focus of the crisis was across southern Ethiopia, south-central Somalia and northern Kenya. Regional drought came on top of successive bad rains and rising inflation. It ramped up a chronic livelihoods crisis into a tipping point of potential disaster by putting extreme pressure on food prices, livestock survival, and water and food availability. Armed conflict across the region compounded chronic ecological and economic vulnerability, which escalated the crisis and limited people’s survival and recovery choices. (IASC Real-Time Evaluation of the Humanitarian Response to the Horn of Africa Drought Crisis in Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya - Synthesis Report)
Appeals & Funding
- Djibouti Appel global 2013
- Ethiopia Humanitarian Requirements 2013
- Kenya Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan 2013
- Somalia Consolidated Appeal 2013-15
Authors: Daniel Maxwell, Nisar Majid
On July 20, 2011, the UN declared a famine in South Central Somalia, which killed some 260,000 people (Checchi and Robinson 2013). Though Somalia was the worst affected country, the crisis was region-wide in its impact. This Desk Review covers the contents of some 180 documents on the crisis that were reviewed in detail, out of a total of over 500 documents initially screened. These include reports, evaluations, assessments, and in some cases, peer-reviewed journal articles and books.
AMOUNT: EUR 94 000 000
0. MAJOR CHANGE SINCE THE PREVIOUS VERSION OF THE HIP
In Somalia, the humanitarian situation today shows many parallels to the period ahead of the devastating 2011 drought that triggered a declaration of famine, which caused the excess deaths of 258 000 people the majority of them being children under five.
In 2001-2012, Somalia was affected by famine. The complex humanitarian situation in Somalia triggered by the collapse of the Somali state in 1991 continues. Protracted conflict, coupled with cyclical drought, floods and disease outbreaks, continue to place half of the country`s 8 million people in need of humanitarian assistance or livelihoods support. Somalia remains a failed state, and public service infrastructure, including health and education is either weak or non-existent.
So what do community based adaptation look like? And how do we think about them? This issue offers exactly this from global to local and East to West directions.
Summary: On 5 August 2011 IFRC and ERCS launched the Preliminary Drought Emergency Appeal for CHF 10,978,250 to assist 165,000 beneficiaries with humanitarian assistance over 6 months. To address increasing needs at the time, the appeal was revised on 26 September 2011 to 28,408,085 CHF (25,408,085 CHF plus 3,000,000 CHF for bilateral emergency response support) to assist approximately 570,000 beneficiaries over 12 months in Oromia, Afar and Somali regions.
By Denis McClean
NAIROBI, March 31 - UNISDR today welcomed the outcome of East Africa’s Second Drought Resilience Summit as an important contribution to next month’s Africa Regional Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and preparing for a future in which climate change will amplify existing stress on water availability in Africa.
Education was interrupted and school time lost in areas affected by disasters such as conflict, floods and drought in Kenya. These disasters put many children at risk, exposing them to dangerous and rapidly changing situations. The education cluster was reactivated in 2013, and carried out several activities to strengthen emergency preparedness and response so as to ensure continuity of education in emergencies
Concern Worldwide’s learning from the Sahel and the Horn of Africa September 2013
This paper suggests that building community resilience to food and nutrition crises is key to promoting a sustainable development agenda in drought prone regions. It argues that, in order to reverse trends of chronic poverty and malnutrition, radical change is needed in domestic and donor policy. This includes fully integrating disaster preparedness, risk reduction and resilience strategies within development policies.
- MAJOR CHANGE SINCE THE PREVIOUS VERSION OF THE HIP
In order to match the needs and current context in the Horn of Africa, it was decided to enable a transfer of EUR 1 900 000 from the Food Aid Budget Line to the Humanitarian Aid Budget Line.
This change aims at better reflecting the realities of the projects selected in the different countries.
Period covered by this Final Report: June 2012 until June 2013.
Appeal target (current): CHF 20,419,397
Appeal coverage: 5%
· This Emergency Appeal was initially launched on 11 June 2012 for CHF 20,419,397 for 12 months to assist 465,844 beneficiaries.
· A DREF (MDRKE022) of CHF 314,208 was allocated in May 2012 from the IFRC DREF to support provision of immediate support to 20,892 persons displaced by floods in West Kenya, Rift Valley and Coast.
By Daniel Maxwell, Bapu Vaitla, Girmay Tesfay, and Nigussie Abadi
Governments play a key role in supporting populations affected by natural disasters, including rebuilding infrastructure to ensure continued services and scaling-up public safety nets to prevent widespread hunger and poverty. However, the traditional approach of limiting greater spending to the aftermath of a disaster has many drawbacks. External support from bilateral or multilateral donors can be slow and unreliable. Private sector reinsurance can be prohibitively expensive.
Period covered by this Ops Update: 5 February 2013 to 30 of June 2013.
Appeal target (current): CHF 12,258,425
Appeal coverage: 85%
1. Executive Summary
Famine conditions were still present in parts of southern Somalia when the 2012 humanitarian appeal for Somalia was launched in December 2011. On 3 February 2012, the famine was declared over, largely due to the delivery of aid under extremely difficult conditions and the exceptional harvest at the start of the year. With carry-over funding from 2011 and continued generous support in the months following the famine, humanitarian actors were able to build on the gains.
One of the aims of European Commission's humanitarian aid actions in Djibouti is to reduce people's vulnerability to droughts and climate - caused disasters. This can be achieved by increasing communities' resilience to respond better to upcoming crises ;
The European Commission also works on improving the food situation in the country as well as on fighting malnutrition and malnutrition - related diseases. Access to clean water and sanitary facilities still needs further development in Djibouti;