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Another Humanitarian Crisis in Somalia? Learning from the 2011 Famine

A new paper highlights several findings of an on-going study of the 2011-12 famine in the region that are relevant to the current humanitarian situation in Somalia, and provides several policy considerations.

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Somalia + 2 others
Lessons Learned from the Somalia Famine and the Greater Horn of Africa Crisis 2011-2012

Tufts University

On July 20, 2011, the UN declared a famine in South Central Somalia, which killed some 260,000 people (Checchi and Robinson 2013). Though Somalia was the worst affected country, the crisis was region-wide in its impact. This Desk Review covers the contents of some 180 documents on the crisis that were reviewed in detail, out of a total of over 500 documents initially screened. These include reports, evaluations, assessments, and in some cases, peer-reviewed journal articles and books.

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Somalia + 8 others
Humanitarian Implementation Plan (HIP) Horn of Africa (ECHO/-HF/BUD/2014/91000) Last update: 31/07/2014 Version 2

AMOUNT: EUR 94 000 000


In Somalia, the humanitarian situation today shows many parallels to the period ahead of the devastating 2011 drought that triggered a declaration of famine, which caused the excess deaths of 258 000 people the majority of them being children under five.

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Somalia 2012-2015: Long Term Planning Framework Version 2

In 2001-2012, Somalia was affected by famine. The complex humanitarian situation in Somalia triggered by the collapse of the Somali state in 1991 continues. Protracted conflict, coupled with cyclical drought, floods and disease outbreaks, continue to place half of the country`s 8 million people in need of humanitarian assistance or livelihoods support. Somalia remains a failed state, and public service infrastructure, including health and education is either weak or non-existent.

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World + 2 others
Adaptation in Retrospect: Perspectives from Successful Community-Based Adaptation Interventions, Issue no.110, April 2014

So what do community based adaptation look like? And how do we think about them? This issue offers exactly this from global to local and East to West directions.

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Ethiopia + 1 other
Ethiopia: Drought - Emergency appeal n° MDRET010 Final Report

Summary: On 5 August 2011 IFRC and ERCS launched the Preliminary Drought Emergency Appeal for CHF 10,978,250 to assist 165,000 beneficiaries with humanitarian assistance over 6 months. To address increasing needs at the time, the appeal was revised on 26 September 2011 to 28,408,085 CHF (25,408,085 CHF plus 3,000,000 CHF for bilateral emergency response support) to assist approximately 570,000 beneficiaries over 12 months in Oromia, Afar and Somali regions.

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Kenya + 6 others
East Africa faces up to drought threat

By Denis McClean

NAIROBI, March 31 - UNISDR today welcomed the outcome of East Africa’s Second Drought Resilience Summit as an important contribution to next month’s Africa Regional Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and preparing for a future in which climate change will amplify existing stress on water availability in Africa.

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Yemen + 6 others
Water in the Arab world: From droughts to flood, building resilience against extremes

World Bank

The Middle East and North Africa is the most water scarce region in the world, and its water stress is likely to worsen. Governments are now under pressure to implement disaster risk management plans.

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Kenya Education Cluster Annual Report 2013

Education was interrupted and school time lost in areas affected by disasters such as conflict, floods and drought in Kenya. These disasters put many children at risk, exposing them to dangerous and rapidly changing situations. The education cluster was reactivated in 2013, and carried out several activities to strengthen emergency preparedness and response so as to ensure continuity of education in emergencies

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Niger + 1 other
Confronting Crisis: Transforming lives through improved resilience

Concern Worldwide’s learning from the Sahel and the Horn of Africa September 2013


This paper suggests that building community resilience to food and nutrition crises is key to promoting a sustainable development agenda in drought prone regions. It argues that, in order to reverse trends of chronic poverty and malnutrition, radical change is needed in domestic and donor policy. This includes fully integrating disaster preparedness, risk reduction and resilience strategies within development policies.

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Somalia + 5 others
Humanitarian Implementation Plan (HIP) 2013 Horn of Africa (ECHO/-HF/BUD/2013/91000) Last update: 23/10/2013 Version 4


In order to match the needs and current context in the Horn of Africa, it was decided to enable a transfer of EUR 1 900 000 from the Food Aid Budget Line to the Humanitarian Aid Budget Line.

This change aims at better reflecting the realities of the projects selected in the different countries.

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Kenya: Complex Emergency Appeal (MDRKE023) Final Report

Period covered by this Final Report: June 2012 until June 2013.

Appeal target (current): CHF 20,419,397

Appeal coverage: 5%

Appeal history:

· This Emergency Appeal was initially launched on 11 June 2012 for CHF 20,419,397 for 12 months to assist 465,844 beneficiaries.

· A DREF (MDRKE022) of CHF 314,208 was allocated in May 2012 from the IFRC DREF to support provision of immediate support to 20,892 persons displaced by floods in West Kenya, Rift Valley and Coast.

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World + 6 others
Cost-Benefit Analysis of the African Risk Capacity Facility

Governments play a key role in supporting populations affected by natural disasters, including rebuilding infrastructure to ensure continued services and scaling-up public safety nets to prevent widespread hunger and poverty. However, the traditional approach of limiting greater spending to the aftermath of a disaster has many drawbacks. External support from bilateral or multilateral donors can be slow and unreliable. Private sector reinsurance can be prohibitively expensive.

International Food Policy Research Institute:

Copyright © International Food Policy Research Institute

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Ethiopia + 2 others
Ethiopia: Drought (MDRET010): Operation update n°7

Period covered by this Ops Update: 5 February 2013 to 30 of June 2013.

Appeal target (current): CHF 12,258,425

Appeal coverage: 85%

Appeal history:

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Consolidated Appeal for Somalia 2012 End Year Report

1. Executive Summary

Famine conditions were still present in parts of southern Somalia when the 2012 humanitarian appeal for Somalia was launched in December 2011. On 3 February 2012, the famine was declared over, largely due to the delivery of aid under extremely difficult conditions and the exceptional harvest at the start of the year. With carry-over funding from 2011 and continued generous support in the months following the famine, humanitarian actors were able to build on the gains.

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs:

To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit

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ECHO Factsheet Djibouti (July 2013)

Having been displaced from their homes in rural areas, an estimated 200,000 people are living in the slums around Djibouti town with poor access to water or minimum sanitation facilities.