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The Denial of Humanitarian Assistance as a Crime under International Law

This article seeks to clarify under which circumstances the denial of humanitarian assistance can constitute a crime under international law. Examining whether the denial of humanitarian assistance fits into the definition of existing crimes, three core crimes of international law are considered: war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.

The study is set in the context of the regained relevance of these crimes with respect to the work of the ad hoc Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), Rwanda (ICTR), and the recent adoption
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Decentralised Cooperation: A New Tool for Conflict Situations

This study examines the practice of Decentralised Cooperation (DC), i.e. the systematic co-operation links between local communities in donor countries and local communities in countries that need support, aiming to create and/or consolidate long-term cultural, technical and economic partnerships between the two.

The case study describes WHO's engagement in Bosnia-Herzigovina since 1997, involving 29 Italian local committees representing 164 municipalities, 10 provincial administrations, 7 regions and 120 NGOs. Describing characteristics of DC and analysing its effectiveness
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SIPRI Yearbook Summary 1999: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security

Examining developments in the world security environment for the year 1998, this annual study explores three main areas; security and conflicts; military spending and armaments, and non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament.

"Although in 1998 there were fewer major armed conflicts than in 1989, world security has not made significant progress since the cold war ended. New concerns are generated by different factors both of an internal and of an international nature. On the one hand, some states, unable to provide basic governance and protection for
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Protecting Refugees: A Field Guide for NGOs

With particular focus on NGOs, this field guide aims to make core, legal concepts underpinning the protection of refugees accessible to the lay reader. It considers signs of possible protection problems during each phase of a refugee's life and suggests specific actions to be undertaken to address those problems.

Special protection issues are also examined, including women, children, older refugees, internally displaced persons and stateless persons. Finally, a list of related documents and publications is provided for more in-depth information about a particular subject, as
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Recurring Challenges in the Provision of Food Assistance in Complex Emergencies

This report describes the ethical dilemmas and operational challenges faced by the World Food Programme and its partners in ensuring food assistance to those in need in complex emergencies.

Highlighting the need to combine operational capabilities with careful, continuous analysis and political sensitivity, the report identifies aspects of policy, procedures and practice to which WFP should give further in-depth consideration and attention.

The report is based on previous evaluation reports, field visits and information provided by a large number of WFP
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The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities: A Guide for Non-Governmental Organizations

On 1 February 1998, the Council of Europe's Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities entered into force. This was an important milestone because the Convention is the first legally binding multilateral instrument devoted to the protection of minorities in general. Its effectiveness, however, is likely to depend on whether it is taken seriously by governments and the strength of the Council of Europe's monitoring mechanism to oversee its implementation. The active involvement of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) is crucial
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The Influence of Aid in Situations of Violent Conflict: A Synthesis and a Commentary on the Lessons Learned from Case Studies on the Limits and Scope for the Use of Development Assistance Incentives and Disincentives for Influencing Conflict Situations

1. Over the past decade, the mandate of aid has been extended significantly. The end of the Cold War brought about far-reaching political changes that culminated in a great rise in civil wars, especially in Africa and the former Soviet Union, as well as a willingness by the international community to promote democratic and peaceful change in those same regions. Thirty years of exploitation, poverty, dictatorship and mismanagement, however - usually with active backing from the same international community, in the name of Cold War politics - has left many
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1999 Report on International Religious Freedom

This report is submitted to the Congress by the Department of State in compliance with section 102(b) of the International Religious Freedom (IRF) Act of 1998.
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Guidance for Evaluating Humanitarian Assistance in Complex Emergencies

This Guidance is aimed at those involved in the commissioning, design and management of evaluations of humanitarian assistance programmes principally within donor organisations but is also likely to be of use to UN agencies, NGOs and other organisations involved in the provision of humanitarian assistance.

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UN Security Council Resolution 1261 (1999) on the Children and Armed Conflict

S/RES/1261 (1999)
25 August 1999

RESOLUTION 1261 (1999) Adopted by the Security Council at its 4037th meeting, on 25 August 1999

The Security Council,

Recalling the statements of its President of 29June1998 (S/PRST/1998/18), 12 February 1999 (S/PRST/1999/6) and 8 July 1999 (S/PRST/1999/21),

Noting recent efforts to bring to an end the use of children as soldiers in violation of international law, in International Labour Organization Convention No.182 on the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour

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Global Humanitarian Emergencies: Trends and Projections, 1999-2000

This annual report for 1999-2000 documents humanitarian emergencies arising from major natural disasters and manmade causes, including armed conflict and repressive government policies, as well as sudden economic emergencies and major technological occurrences. Projecting future trends in aid and assistance, topics include:

- Global overview
- Emergencies caused primarily by conflict and government repression
- Potential emergencies
- Humanitarian emergencies caused by natural disasters
- Humanitarian response
- Financing humanitarian assistance
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FEWS Current Vulnerability Assessment Guidance Manual

This guide manual lays out the approach currently used by FEWS to identify regions and groups most vulnerable to food insecurity in the case of drought or some other shock. For this purpose, it addresses the following issues:

- Objectives and uses of vulnerability analysis
- Evolution of thought regarding famine and vulnerability
- Various approaches to vulnerability analysis  
- FEWS's general approach to vulnerability analysis
- Future developments in methods and how they might be applied

An analytical tool for practitioners, the
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World + 2 others
Kosovo: Protection and Peace-Building

This report examines the protection situation for refugees, returnees, internally displaced persons and minorities in Kosovo, as well as safeguards for the rights of those who have not yet returned. In addition, the role of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees within the overall structure of the UN Interim Administration in Kosovo is assessed.

The product of a mission to Kosovo from 29 July to 2 August 1999, the report builds on the work of a previous mission to Albania in June 1999, assessing the protection needs and problems of the 400,000 Kosovar Albanian refugees in Kosovo.
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Disasters Controlled Library

This library is a  tool for disaster terminology and for analysing the contents of bibliographic information. Here provided in Spanish, the vocabulary is also available in English, Portuguese and French, which may be requested from the provider.
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World + 2 others
Forced Migration Review No. 5 - Learning from Kosovo

Forced Migration Review provides a forum for the regular exchange of practical experience, information and ideas between researchers, refugees and internally displaced people, and those who work with them. It is published three times a year in English, Spanish and Arabic by Refugee Studies Center/ University of Oxford in association with the Global IDP Project/ Norwegian Refugee Council.

Issue 5 deals with issues of international relations, drawing on Kosovo as a case study.

- Introduction: learning from Kosovo, by Matthew J Gibney, Guest Editor