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Aid in the Twilight Zone: A Critical Analysis of Humanitarian-Development Aid Linkages in Situations of Chronic Instability

Aiming to identify ways of enhancing international responses in unstable situations, this study examines the concepts and programming strategies of UNICEF in transitional situations. For this purpose, it examines the following issues:

- Transition debates in context
- UNICEF in transition: Policy framework and institutional culture
- Transition in practice
- Issues and implications

The study is based on a review of literature concerned with relief/development - war/peace transition as well as literature
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Complex Crisis and Complex Peace: Humanitarian Coordination in Angola

This study examines the coordination of humanitarian assistance by OCHA in Angola in the period 1993-1996, aiming to identify lessons applicable to future conflict and post-conflict situations. Issues discussed include:

- Relevant Angolan history and UN involvement
- The coordination of humanitarian assistance
- Demobilization and reintegration
- Management and administration of the coordinating body
- Transition from coordination during conflict to coordination during post-conflict periods
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs:

To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit http://unocha.org/.

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Reproductive Health for Displaced Populations

Presenting available information about reproductive health (RH) among displaced populations, this paper examines the policies of a number of actors as well as explores current programmes and issues facing those attempting to implement them. For this purpose, it looks at the following issues:

- What do we know about the RH status of displaced populations?
- Existing and proposed policies on RH for displaced populations
- Case studies of current RH services
- Issues affecting implementation of RH services

The paper aims to contribute to the recognition
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To Serve and to Protect

This manual compiles the relevant rules and principles of International Humanitarian Law and International Human Rights Law relevant to professional law enforcement practice in situations ranging from peace to international armed conflict.

The document seeks to provide a useful reference for preparing instructors for theoretical training and help them devise new techniques for including these rules in their programmes. Members of the armed forces and the judiciary, students interested in law enforcement and practitioners of human rights and international humanitarian law will
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Humanitarian Exchange Magazine No. 10 - RNN Newsletter

Humanitarianism is increasingly under threat. This was the conclusion of two recent meetings held in London (February 1998), which will form the backdrop to a forthcoming RRN Network Paper (no. 25), due out in May 1998, and Paris (October 1997), reported by Action Contre la Faim, France, in this Newsletter.

This issue focuses on humanitarianism and includes contributions on the role of humanitarianism in Sierra Leone, lessons learned in Angola on conflict resolution, challenges faced working in the field and perspectives on emergency personnel recruitment.
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El Nino to Fade After May, La Nina May Follow

By Stephanie Nebehay

GENEVA (Reuters) - The El Nino weather phenomenon that has brought heavy rains and flooding to some parts of the world and drought to others is likely to weaken after May, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) said Friday.

Most climate models foresee conditions beginning to return to normal, but some show El Nino may be followed by a cold
weather event known as La Nina, which would bring abnormal cold to the eastern Equatorial Pacific beginning from July to
September, the WMO said in a report.
Reuters - AlertNet:



For more humanitarian news and analysis, please visit www.trust.org/alertnet

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El Niño increasing Pacific cyclones

The South Pacific Regional Environment Program says some Pacific nations will be hit by destructive cyclones more often.

Cyclone risk increases during El Nino weather patterns, and the Program says new scientific studies show those patterns are becoming more frequent.

The studies were conducted by New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research and the United States National Centre for Atmospheric Research.

The current El Nino pattern has spawned eight cyclones in the Pacific since
Australian Broadcasting Corporation:

© ABC

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Coping with El Niño

Weekly News

Latin American countries such as Peru and Paraguay continue to suffer from the consequences of the meteorological
phenomenon "El Niño". According to official figures, heavy rainfall, floods and mud slides which recently hit the region have
claimed at least 28 lives in Peru alone, while 10 persons are still missing. The Peruvian Red Cross is planning to distribute
monthly rations of rice, beans, sugar, oil and salt to 10,000 people in two of the worst-hit areas, Tumbes in the north of the
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Americas El Niño Situation Report No.1

AMERICAS : EL NIÑO 1997 - 1998

Appeal no. 27/97: period covered: 26 November 1997 - 21 January 1998

The "El Niño" phenomenon is bringing erratic weather, flooding and drought to many of the Pacific coast nations of the Americas and to a lesser degree those on the Atlantic side of the continent. Despite the current very low response to the Federation's appeal, National Societies are moving to respond to the needs of the most vulnerable. If funding applications now underway succeed, the operation
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El Niño strengthens

Weekly News


Sea surface temperatures in the east and central Pacific are at their highest points for nearly half a century - while those in the western Pacific remain lower than normal - indicating that the current El Niño phenomenon has now reached record levels, reports Terry Butt, the International Federation's Pacific regional chief.

The anticipated results are:

- Continued drought through April/May 1998 in Papua New Guinea and eastern Australia, with dry conditions extending west
as far as Samoa.

- Dry conditions in Micronesia, the
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WFP Regional Contingency Planning for El Nino Information Update from WFP Regional Office for Southern Africa no. 7

Supplement to WFP Emergency Report no. 03 of 1998
Maputo, Mozambique
This is the seventh in a series of information updates provided on a fortnightly basis. Please note that the WFP Regional Office coverage is Lesotho, Malawi, Madagascar, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Information received from Swaziland has also been included in this report. [Last update forwarded as a supplement to the WFP Emergency Report was with the Report of 12 December 1997]

I. El Nino Overview:

Meteorology experts continue to give a similar picture of El Nino as a very strong warm episode expected to

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Rains in Southern Africa Dampen El Niño Threat for Now

Report
CARE
Harare, January 13, 1998 -- The robust rains falling on parts of southern Africa have diminished, but not extinguished, fears that a scorching El Niño drought will wither staple harvests during the key growing months of January and February.
However, experts say this wet New Year will have to continue for at least the next eight weeks to ensure sturdy crop yields -- and to offset the smaller acreage planted in several countries in anticipation of an El Niño drought.

Over the past month, southern Africa has benefited from the seasonal rains that have thwarted an El Niño drought.

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Human Rights Watch World Report 1998

The 1997 annual review of human rights practices considers developments in 65 countries as well as thematic concerns of particular interest. In addition, the introduction outlines patterns and trends discerned over the year. Particular countries are discussed with respect to:

- Significant human rights developments
- Response of global actors, e.g the EU, Japan, the US, the UN & regional organisations
- Freedom of local human rights defenders to conduct their work

Special initiatives or thematic concerns include:

- The arms project
Human Rights Watch:



© Copyright, Human Rights Watch 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th Floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA

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Toward More Humane and Effective Sanctions Management: Enhancing the Capacity of the United Nations System

Report
Watson Institute
Concerned about the negative humanitarian consequences of multilateral sanctions calling for reform, this report offers recommendations to the UN system for ameliorating adverse humanitarian consequences of sanctions and making their implementation more effective and accountable.

The report offers a methodology for preassessing and monitoring the humanitarian impacts of sanctions, calls for greater transparency in the functioning of UN sanctions committees and urge the present ad hoc policy be replaced by a more regime-like system characterized
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Security in the Field

This booklet provides information on existing security arrangements and individual responsibility applicable to all staff members of the United Nations, UN agencies, programs and funds. In addition it contains information regarding practical, common-sense measures applicable to individual staff members to minimize the risks faced.

The booklet is based on the Field Security Handbook, a comprehensive policy document for the use of officials concerned with security.
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Civilian Peacekeepers: A Future Challenge

With UN peace-keeping operations increasingly entering internal conflict areas, making the role of the UN more complex, comprehensive and demanding, this article discusses the possibility of a more frequent and conceptualized use of civilians to enhance the capacity of peace-keeping. Its three parts discuss:

Part I: Discusses peace-keeping in its historical context, emphasizing the shift from military observing and reporting operations to current multi-dimensional operations and their increased involvement of civilians.

Part II: Provides an assessment of
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Rapid Educational Response in Complex Emergencies: A Discussion Document

This document seeks to initiate a broader view of the role and impact of initial as well as further education in the perspective of lifelong learning as a practice for dialogue in circumstances of political crisis and social confrontation.

For this purpose, it focuses on humanitarian educational intervention during complex emergencies and offers four main parts:

Part I summarizes the basic policy instruments that advocate education as a child's right.
Part II analyses the different phases of emergency .
Part III shows how to expand non-formal
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Tackling Hunger in a World Full of Food: Tasks ahead for Food Aid

This paper identifies three categories of hunger as priority areas in which targeted food aid should play a principal role in coming years in helping households to attain food security. It main chapters deal with the following issues:

- Food security: Sustaining people
- The first goal of food aid: Saving life
- Sustaining and enhancing lives
- Chronic hunger and weak markets
- The evolving nature of food aid and future needs
- Tasks ahead

The report was prepared by WFP in response to a request from the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United
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Australian Emergency Management Glossary

This glossary provides a list of emergency management terms and definitions, likely to be encountered by emergency management workers.

The glossary does not present new or different definitions of terms, but draws together definitions from many existing sources, as well as suggests a set of core terms.