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Health of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas

The cultural diversity in the Region of the Americas is determined, to a great extent, by the presence of approximately 45 million indigenous people belonging to more than 400 different ethnic groups spread throughout 24 countries. While average mortality rates across the Region have decreased in recent years, health indicators for indigenous peoples (where available) demonstrate that urgent action is needed.

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has supported a number of interventions regarding indigenous health.
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DDR: Mapping Issues, Dilemmas and Guiding Principles

Report
Clingendael
This 28 page briefing note discusses Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR): defining what it can and can not do and the preconditions necessary for its success.

Nicole Ball (from the Center on International Policy, Washington DC) and Luc van de Goor (Clingendael Institute) address some of the problems that practitioners will encounter in dealing with DDR program design and implementation. The document provides a concise overview of some of the main lessons learned, as well as some guidance questions.

The paper upholds that DDR must be seen
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Future Watch: Assessing the Global Risk of Chronic Diseases

Recent events in the world of public health, including the International AIDS Conference in Toronto and the $500 million Gates Foundation grant to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, have once again catapulted the issue of global health into the public spotlight. However, chronic disease-an issue often neglected but equally significant to our strategic interests-continues to receive scant attention from the policy community.

Earlier this year, the CSIS Global Strategy Institute hosted Dr. Carolyn Runowicz, the 2005-06 national president of
Center for Strategic and International Studies:

© The Center for Strategic & International Studies

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Canada, Sweden and the UK: A Joint Institutional Approach - Working together with UNICEF for the World's Children

The Millennium Declaration, related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the outcome of the 2005 Millennium world Summit represent the collective commitment of the international community to a better future for all. For children this
means that their rights and principles to health, education, protection and equality are protected, respected and fulfilled.Within the UN, UNICEF is mandated to advocate for the protection of the rights of the child, to help meet their basic needs and to expand their opportunities to reach their full potential.With less than a decade
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Post Flood Emergency Health Precautions

Preventing outbreaks of diseases like typhoid, dysentery, infectious hepatitis, and other diseases associated with flood waters should now be the major objective of all relief work. Public education on community health should form the basis of intervention.
We urge all organizations involved in flood relief operations to ensure that the following precautions are followed by ALL in order to avoid outbreak of epidemics as flood waters recede.
Community sanitation, proper personal hygiene and immediate treatment of illness are the cornerstones of preventing
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World + 1 other
Preventing Political Violence: Towards a Model for Catalytic Action

The problem of fragile, failing and failed states is a critical issue on today's international scene, and the question of preventing violence is especially acute for many countries. New ways need to be found to tackle this violence, if such countries are to have true hopes of stability and then also of coherence and well-being. This was the primary concern of the multi-year, practical, learning effort entitled the International Peace and Prosperity Project (IPPP) in Guinea-Bissau.

The IPPP features the mobilization of
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Understanding HIV/AIDS and Livelihoods: The Contribution of Longitudinal Data and Cluster Analysis

It is now accepted that HIV/AIDS is a long-wave event, with accumulative and systemic impacts. It follows from this that longitudinal studies are needed, to establish the effects on individuals, households and communities and their complex interactions over time. But what kinds of longitudinal studies illuminate these issues the best?

This Briefing Paper provides one kind of answer. It draws on longitudinal research carried out in Zambia in 1993 and 2005 using methods derived from the anthropological and ethnographic
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Watermarks: Child Protection During Floods in Bangladesh

As disaster is a regular event and part of life and livelihood in Bangladesh, more or less all the development agencies working in this largest delta have gained significant experiences and competence in disaster mitigation. Many of them are working efficiently in reducing the impacts of hazards by promoting disasterproof infrastructure, early warning system and associated awareness raising programmes as well as improved logistic arrangements and human resource management. As a result, significant developments are now apparent in the field of emergency responses
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Global Action 2005-2006

ACT celebrated its 10th anniversary in August 2005. This decade of working together as an alliance of more than 100 churches and related agencies, assisting people in need in humanitarian crises, culminated in an extraordinary and unprecedented year of disaster response in 2005.

The annual report titled "Global Action" reports on ACT's work during 2005-2006. Global action means not only worldwide presence through all members and being an alliance that saves lives and supports communities in emergencies, but
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Collection : La faim dans le monde (2006) - La faim et la capacité d'apprendre

"La faim dans le monde" est une nouvelle collection annuelle du Programme alimentaire mondial des Nations Unies qui s'adresse aux décideurs des pays en développement et des pays développés et qui entend combler une importante lacune des rapports existants sur ce sujet.

Ces autres rapports rendent compte des progrès accomplis vers la réalisation des objectifs fixés au plan international ou
ont essentiellement un but de plaidoyer, tandis que les rapports de la "La faim dans le monde" seront axés plus articulièrement sur des stratégies concrètes de lutte contre
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Girl Power: The Impact of Girls' Education on HIV and Sexual Behaviour

Report
ActionAid
The report demonstrates how educating girls and women is one huge step towards turning around the AIDS epidemic in Africa.

Early in the epidemic - before 1995 - more highly educated women were more vulnerable to HIV than women who were less well educated. They were more highly educated and had better economic prospects, which influenced their lifestyle choices. They were usually more mobile and tended to have a number of sexual partners. But at that stage, there was also a general information vacuum about HIV and AIDS in Africa. As the epidemic has evolved, however, the relationship
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Food, Nutrition and HIV: What next?

This briefing paper outlines the various ways in which food and nutritional security is essential in the HIV/AIDS response. It provides some information on Article 28 (UNGASS 2006 Article 28 provides the highprofile international endorsement needed to secure vigorous action if used effectively) and what it implies. It ends by examining some possible actions, at both programme and policy levels, for integrating food and nutrition into the response to HIV/AIDS.

The paper does not discuss possible nutritional interventions in detail, or such issues as whether cash transfers
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Where to Now? Implications of Changing Relations Between DFID, Recipient Governments and NGOs in Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda

Report
CARE
The context for aid delivery has changed significantly over the past decade. Amongst these changes are donors' shift towards strengthening the role of the state, their new emphasis on promoting national ownership of the development process with broad participation (including by poor people themselves), and the rise of "partnership" and "accountability" as key principles underpinning these policies. At the same time, many NGOs have moved away from pure service delivery towards supporting poor people's capacity to claim their rights and hold
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Cash-Transfer Programming in Emergencies

Report
Oxfam
The aim of this practical guide is to support the implementation of cash programmes in emergencies. It is based on the experience of Oxfam GB over five years (2000-2005) in a variety of disaster contexts.

Oxfam GB has used cash interventions as part of its response to the needs of communities affected by droughts, floods, hurricanes, and cyclones, and the needs of displaced people and people experiencing chronic food insecurity as a result of protracted conflict and/or poverty.

This guide makes extensive reference
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The Missing - ICRC Progress Report

In 2002, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) began looking at ways of better assisting people missing as a result of armed conflict or internal violence, and their relatives. The aim was first to review all methods of preventing disappearances, of processing cases of missing persons and of assisting their families, and then to agree on common practices in this area and move the issue further up the international agenda.

In accordance with the mandate conferred on it by the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols, and with
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Cluster Munition Questions and Answers: The M26 Rocket

The Question and Answer format of this document outlines details of the M26 rocket and the humanitarian concerns it raises.
  • What is the M26 rocket and how does it function?
  • What effects do the submunitions from an M26 rocket have on impact?
  • Why does the military value the M26 rocket?
  • What are the humanitarian concerns about the use of M26 rockets?
  • Where have M26 rockets been used in combat?
  • Are M26 rockets compliant with international humanitarian law (IHL)?
  • Has the U.S. banned or placed restrictions
Human Rights Watch:



© Copyright, Human Rights Watch 350 Fifth Avenue, 34th Floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA

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Report of the Independent Expert for the United Nations Study on Violence Against Children (A/61/299)

This report, which is based on the in-depth study of Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro, independent expert appointed by the Secretary-General pursuant to General- Assembly resolution 57/90 of 2002, provides a global picture of violence against children and proposes recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue. It provides information on the incidence of various types of violence against children within the family, schools, alternative care institutions and detention facilities, places where children work and communities.

The Study was prepared through a participatory
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Human Rights and HIV/AIDS: Now More than Ever

At the 2006 United Nations High Level Meeting on HIV/AIDS, world leaders reaffirmed that "the full realization of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all is an essential element in the global response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic." Yet, 25 years into the AIDS epidemic, this "essential element" remains the missing piece in the fight against AIDS.

Now more than ever, law and human rights should occupy the center of the global HIV/AIDS struggle. This document outlines 10 reasons why.
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Promoting Agriculture for Social Protection or Social Protection for Agriculture: Strategic Policy and Research Issues

It is increasingly recognised that agriculture must play a role in pro-poor economic growth in countries with large, poor rural sectors. There is also a major focus on social protection interventions to address risks and insecurity affecting poor people. However current policy debate and formulation makes only limited attempts to integrate agricultural and social protection policies. This paper outlines significant paradigm shifts in policies affecting both these fields and highlights pertinent issues arising from interactions between agricultural and social protection policies.
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Scaling-up the HIV/AIDS Response: From Alignment and Harmonisation to mutual Accountability

Scaling-up towards Universal Access depends on doing the right things right - strengthening underlying processes upon which results are delivered.

This paper addresses key points in HIV/AIDS response:

1. Broad agreement exists on the aid architecture needed for scaling-up to universal access.

2. But insufficient alignment and harmonisation continues to limit scalingup.

3. Without greater mutual accountability among all stakeholders, lack of harmonisation will continue to cost lives.