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Tools for Knowledge and Learning: A Guide for Development and Humanitarian Organisations

In recent years, a growing movement has emphasised the improved application of knowledge and learning as a means to improve development and humanitarian work. The movement has led to the widespread adoption of learning and knowledge-based strategies among the range of agencies involved in such work, including donor agencies, multilaterals, NGOs, research institutes, and the plethora of institutions based in the South, including national governments, regional organisations, and indigenous NGOs.

This guide is aimed at staff working
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World Hunger Series 2006

This is the first edition of WFP's World Hunger Series, an annual publication which will focus on hunger and practical strategies to end it. This inaugural edition examines the relationship between hunger and learning.

Over 300 million children worldwide regularly go to bed hungry and approximately 100 million of these are school-aged children who don't go to school because their parents are too poor. The publication addresses how learning and hunger impact each other- even if they do manage to go to school, undernourished children are unable to concentrate on their lessons.
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Circle of Hope - Children's Rights in a World with AIDS

In 2006, Plan adopted a new framework for its response to AIDS called Circle of Hope. Central to this framework is a program philosophy that starts with the rights of children and addresses these rights in a manner that is both comprehensive and appropriate to the child's context.

The Circle of Hope applies the practice of child-centred community development to the program response to AIDS. Child-centred community development is the overarching program philosophy of Plan. It defines Plan's role in international development.

This new report highlights how millions
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Putting Back the Management of Severe Malnutrition on the International Health Agenda

Severe malnutrition, defined by severe wasting and/or the presence of nutritional oedema, is a life threatening condition requiring urgent treatment. How many lives would better treatment of severe child malnutrition save?

The prevalence of severe malnutrition is estimated as around 2 % in least developed countries and 1% in other developing countries translating to about 10 million severely malnourished children at one time. About 10 million children die each year of which some 4 million are neonatal deaths, not generally preventable by addressing
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The Cluster Working Group on Early Recovery - Implementing Early Recovery

In the immediate aftermath of a crisis, the focus of national and international actors is primarily on meeting lifesaving needs. This is understandable: human lives are at risk and quick action is required to minimize damage and restore order. However, from the very beginning, there is a need for more than life-saving measures: the foundations for recovery and a return to longer-term development should be planned from the outset of a humanitarian emergency and put in place as early as possible, to reduce the suffering and improve the ability to
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A Comprehensive Conceptual Model for Disaster Management

It can be argued that a well defined and clear model is highly beneficial in the management of disasters because it facilitates the securing of support for disaster management efforts. Hence, disaster management needs a formal system, or a model, to manage and possibly reduce the negative consequences of a disaster.

In this paper the authors address and analyze different disaster management models as well present various approaches studied in the past to explain the key elements of the disaster management domain as well as its operations and activities.
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Annual Report 2006 - What's Next in International Development

The question "what's next for international development?" has two answers - one expected, the other less so. The first is prominent in a set of aid-dependent countries that was the focus of much attention in 2005. Call these the "20% club", in which aid accounts for around 20% of GDP. The other answer is relevant to those countries, but stands out more clearly in the "0.2% club", in which aid amounts to only a small share of GDP. The club designations are indicative. However, 20% is the average aid/ GNP figure
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Real Aid II: Making Technical Assistance Work

In 2005, rich countries made long overdue promises to increase aid. European Union countries signed up to clear timetables to reach the 35-year-old target of allocating 0.7% of national income on aid, encouraging other donor countries to add their own pledges of new funds.

Aid can make a real difference to the lives of the world's poorest people. It can build schools, clinics and rural roads, purchase essential medicines and train and employ the millions of teachers, extension workers and nurses needed to meet the basic rights
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Mapping the Risks of Corruption in Humanitarian Action

The issue of corruption in emergency relief and rehabilitation is a key concern for practitioners, who invest considerable resources and energy in trying to minimise it. However, it has barely been discussed in policy terms, and little researched. This paper aims to map the risks of corruption in the provision of humanitarian relief as an important step in helping the humanitarian community to further its existing efforts to combat corruption. As Pope (2000:xiv) argues, the obvious first step in anti-corruption efforts is to 'gain an understanding of the underlying
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The Refugee Convention as a Rights Blueprint for Persons in Need of International Protection

Despite the influence of "international human rights law" on the regulation of State behaviour, there has been a general reluctance by States, academics and institutions to view human rights law, refugee law and humanitarian law as branches of an interconnected, holistic regime,particularly when it comes to triggering eligibility for protection beyond the scope of article 1A(2) of the Convention.

This paper seeks to establish the fundamental conceptual connections between international refugee law and human rights
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Different Needs - Equal Opportunities: A Gender Handbook for Humanitarian Action - Checklist of Indicators

A sector by sector (cluster by cluster) practical guide on how to mainstream gender in emergencies including the importance of coordination of gender issues in humanitarian response. The Handbook will set standards for gender mainstreaming in emergencies. It will provide information to improve the effectiveness of our humanitarian response.

Checklist of indicators - the basics:
- Gender analysis
- Gender balance
- Disaggregated data by sex and age
- Coordination efforts
- Participation
- International legal framework
- Education
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Field Friendly Guide to Integrating Emergency Obstetric Care in Humanitarian Programs

This step-by-step field-friendly guide for implementing quality emergency obstetric care has been produced by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children (Women's Commission) on behalf of the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict (RHRC) Consortium.

In any new emergency setting 15 percent of pregnant women can be expected to develop complications during pregnancy or delivery and will require emergency obstetric care. Therefore, while some humanitarian actors are focusing on prioritizing displaced populations
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Governance and Aid Effectiveness: Has the White Paper Got it Right?

The big challenge for Britain's aid policy is to reconcile concerns about governance in developing countries with the commitment dramatically to scale up aid. Aid is set to double. But governance in Africa in particular is often poor - and not significantly improving. Political risk will need to be taken much more seriously in coming years. An emphasis on governance is at heart of the new White Paper on international development.

This paper highlights six main "arenas" that matter in terms of governance. These are all areas where donors can help support progress:
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Practical Approaches to Needs-Based Allocation of Humanitarian Aid: A Review for Irish Aid on Donor Approaches

Funding according to need is one of the central principles of being a good humanitarian donor. In committing themselves to the principles and practice of good humanitarian donorship (GHD), donors agree to fund on the basis of, and in proportion to need. However donors, recipient agencies and beneficiaries agree that not all funding is allocated to where it is most needed, and analysis of available data confirms this. The complex mixture of donor bureaucracies, competing foreign policy priorities, information deficits, institutional incentives and weaknesses in the humanitarian
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Mental Health and Psychosocial Well-Being among Children in Severe Food Shortage Situations

This paper provides information on the mental health and the psychosocial well-being among children in food shortage situations.

A severe food shortage threatens the nutritional status of communities. This can cause malnutrition among affected populations including micronutrient de?ciencies. Such de?ciencies can inhibit intellectual and physical potential and cause lifelong disability.

Many caregivers are unavailable or unable to provide psychosocial stimulation to their children during food crises due to their own poor physical or mental health. A lack of psychosocial
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In-depth Study on All Forms of Violence Against Women: Report of the Secretary General (A/61/122/Add.1)

Resolution 58/185 provides that the study should cover all forms and manifestations of violence against women, and include the following:

(a) a statistical overview of all forms of violence against women, in order to better evaluate the scale of such violence while identifying gaps in data collection and formulating proposals for assessing the extent of the problem;
(b) the causes of violence against women, including its root causes and other contributing factors;
(c) the medium-term and long-term consequences of violence against women;
(d) the health, social and economic
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Profile: Children and Armed Conflict

Almost all conflicts are now fought by armed groups within national boundaries and almost 90 percent of the causalities are civilians, mainly women and children. In the last decade an estimatedtwenty million children worldwide have been forced to flee their homes because of conflict and more thantwo million children have died as a direct result of armed conflict. At leastsix million children have been permanently disabled or seriously injured. Between 8,000 and 10,000 children are killed or maimed by landmines every year.
Security Council Report:

For more information, please visit the Security Council Report website

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Behaviour Change Communication in Emergencies: A Toolkit

This toolkit is a resource for everyone working in emergency situations caused by natural disasters. It is designed to help programme managers from UNICEF, UN agencies, NGO partners and government personnel to prepare, plan, implement and monitor behaviour change communication initiatives supporting health, hygiene and child protection efforts in emergencies.

The toolkit has three parts: an overview section, several programmatic chapters and many practical tools to plan, implement and monitor a BCC initiative for emergencies.
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Corruption as an Internal Problem for Emergency Operations

Even though there is a growing public awareness about widespread corruption in politics and the economy and its detrimental effects on development, especially in poor countries, it is still largely a taboo to talk about it as an internal problem for aid organisations.

Individual cases might be reported, occasionally also in the media, but in general, the aid community is extremely reluctant to acknowledge the fact that corruption is happening in numerous projects. The issue is widely perceived as concerning only auditors and
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Forced Displacement in Africa: Dimensions, Difficulties and Policy Directions

The large-scale displacement of people has become a defining characteristic of sub- Saharan Africa. During the past four decades, millions of people throughout the continent have been obliged to abandon their homes and to seek safety elsewhere, often losing the few assets they possessed and suffering great hardship in the process. Even in their places where they have taken refuge, the continent's displaced people have often been confronted with serious threats to their welfare and restrictions on their rights. For many, moreover, displacement has